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Table 5: Results of the hierarchical regression analyses with self-control as a moderator
  Smoking 
  SE b Beta [95%-CI] p R [95%-CI] √(ΔR²) √(ΔR²) [95%-CI] 
Step 1 Age -.02 0.02 -.02 [-0.07, 0.03] .416 .08 [0.04, 0.12] .08 [0.04, 0.12] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Step 2 Age -.01 0.02 -.01 [-0.06, 0.04] .722 .13 [0.09, 0.17] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.14] <.001 
Step 3 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.04, 0.05] .670 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.07 0.02 -.07 [-0.11, -0.03] .001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.13] <.001 
Self-control -.10 0.03 -.10 [-0.17, -0.03] .014 
Step 4 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.03, 0.05] .661 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.07 0.02 -.07 [-0.11, -0.03] .002 
Shift work .02 0.05 .02 [-0.08, 0.13] .675 
Self-control -.11 0.03 -.11 [-0.18, -0.03] .008 
Shift work x self-control .07 0.06 .07 [-0.04, 0.18] .207 
Step 5 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.03, 0.05] .658 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.11 0.07 -.11 [-0.25, 0.02] .107 
Shift work -.05 0.18 -.05 [-0.41, 0.31] .793 
Self-control -.17 0.09 -.17 [-0.35, 0.01] .068 
Shift work x self-control .19 0.19 .19 [-0.18, 0.56] .303 
Shift work x gender .08 0.19 .08 [-0.30, 0.45] .697 
Gender x self-control .08 0.11 .08 [-0.13, 0.30] .446 
Shift work x gender x self-control -.13 0.19 -.13 [-0.51, 0.26] .510 
  Smoking 
  SE b Beta [95%-CI] p R [95%-CI] √(ΔR²) √(ΔR²) [95%-CI] 
Step 1 Age -.02 0.02 -.02 [-0.07, 0.03] .416 .08 [0.04, 0.12] .08 [0.04, 0.12] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Step 2 Age -.01 0.02 -.01 [-0.06, 0.04] .722 .13 [0.09, 0.17] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.14] <.001 
Step 3 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.04, 0.05] .670 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.07 0.02 -.07 [-0.11, -0.03] .001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.13] <.001 
Self-control -.10 0.03 -.10 [-0.17, -0.03] .014 
Step 4 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.03, 0.05] .661 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.07 0.02 -.07 [-0.11, -0.03] .002 
Shift work .02 0.05 .02 [-0.08, 0.13] .675 
Self-control -.11 0.03 -.11 [-0.18, -0.03] .008 
Shift work x self-control .07 0.06 .07 [-0.04, 0.18] .207 
Step 5 Age .01 0.02 .01 [-0.03, 0.05] .658 .16 [0.12, 0.20] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.11 0.07 -.11 [-0.25, 0.02] .107 
Shift work -.05 0.18 -.05 [-0.41, 0.31] .793 
Self-control -.17 0.09 -.17 [-0.35, 0.01] .068 
Shift work x self-control .19 0.19 .19 [-0.18, 0.56] .303 
Shift work x gender .08 0.19 .08 [-0.30, 0.45] .697 
Gender x self-control .08 0.11 .08 [-0.13, 0.30] .446 
Shift work x gender x self-control -.13 0.19 -.13 [-0.51, 0.26] .510 

<em>Note.</em> SE = standard error; [95%-CI] = confidence interval for b and Beta; <em>p</em> = <em>p</em>-value; R[95%-CI] = confidence interval for R; √(ΔR²)[95%-CI] = confidence interval for √(ΔR²).

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