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Table 3: Results of the hierarchical regression analyses with fluid intelligence as a moderator
  Smoking 
  SE b Beta [95%-CI] p R [95%-CI] √(ΔR²) √(ΔR²) [95%-CI] 
Step 1 Age -.02 0.02 -.02 [-0.07, 0.03] .416 .08 [0.04, 0.12] .08 [0.04, 0.12] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Step 2 Age -.01 0.02 -.01 [-0.06, 0.04] .722 .13 [0.09, 0.17] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.14] <.001 
Step 3 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .118 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .18 [0.14, 0.22] 
Gender -.09 0.02 -.09 [-0.13, -0.05] <.001 
Shift work .07 0.02 .07 [0.03, 0.12] .002 
Fluid intelligence -.18 0.02 -.18 [-0.23, -0.14] <.001 
Step 4 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .120 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.09 0.02 -.09 [-0.13, -0.05] <.001 
Shift work .03 0.10 .03 [-0.17, 0.23] .764 
Fluid intelligence -.19 0.02 -.19 [-0.23, -0.14] <.001 
Shift work x fluid intelligence .04 0.10 .04 [-0.16, 0.24] .687 
Step 5 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .116 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.08 0.16 -.08 [-0.40, 0.24] .623 
Shift work .11 0.43 .11 [-0.80, 1.02] .801 
Fluid intelligence -.18 0.09 -.18 [-0.47, 0.00] .053 
Shift work x fluid intelligence -.01 0.44 -.01 [-0.94, 0.91] .976 
Shift work x gender -.09 0.44 -.09 [-1.02, 0.85] .849 
Gender x fluid intelligence -.01 0.17 -.01 [-0.36, 0.34] .950 
Shift work x gender x fluid intelligence .06 0.44 .06 [-0.88, 0.99] .896 
  Smoking 
  SE b Beta [95%-CI] p R [95%-CI] √(ΔR²) √(ΔR²) [95%-CI] 
Step 1 Age -.02 0.02 -.02 [-0.07, 0.03] .416 .08 [0.04, 0.12] .08 [0.04, 0.12] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Step 2 Age -.01 0.02 -.01 [-0.06, 0.04] .722 .13 [0.09, 0.17] .10 [0.06, 0.14] 
Gender -.08 0.02 -.08 [-0.12, -0.04] <.001 
Shift work .09 0.02 .09 [0.05, 0.14] <.001 
Step 3 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .118 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .18 [0.14, 0.22] 
Gender -.09 0.02 -.09 [-0.13, -0.05] <.001 
Shift work .07 0.02 .07 [0.03, 0.12] .002 
Fluid intelligence -.18 0.02 -.18 [-0.23, -0.14] <.001 
Step 4 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .120 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.09 0.02 -.09 [-0.13, -0.05] <.001 
Shift work .03 0.10 .03 [-0.17, 0.23] .764 
Fluid intelligence -.19 0.02 -.19 [-0.23, -0.14] <.001 
Shift work x fluid intelligence .04 0.10 .04 [-0.16, 0.24] .687 
Step 5 Age -.04 0.02 -.04 [-0.08, 0.01] .116 .22 [0.18, 0.26] .00 [-0.04, 0.04] 
Gender -.08 0.16 -.08 [-0.40, 0.24] .623 
Shift work .11 0.43 .11 [-0.80, 1.02] .801 
Fluid intelligence -.18 0.09 -.18 [-0.47, 0.00] .053 
Shift work x fluid intelligence -.01 0.44 -.01 [-0.94, 0.91] .976 
Shift work x gender -.09 0.44 -.09 [-1.02, 0.85] .849 
Gender x fluid intelligence -.01 0.17 -.01 [-0.36, 0.34] .950 
Shift work x gender x fluid intelligence .06 0.44 .06 [-0.88, 0.99] .896 

<em>Note.</em> SE = standard error; [95%-CI] = confidence interval for b and Beta; <em>p</em> = <em>p</em>-value; R[95%-CI] = confidence interval for R; √(ΔR²)[95%-CI] = confidence interval for √(ΔR²).

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