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Table 3.

Examples of natural models to be used as inspiration for problem listed in NGSS HS-PS2-3 example. Hedgehogs, trees, and woodpeckers react to different forces in different ways.

Natural ModelsNatural PhenomenonBiomimicry Designs
Hedgehog (Erinaceinae) Hedgehog spines absorb force to protect climbing hedgehogs falling from high places. Helmet liner (Hedgemon, LLC) to absorb force from hits (e.g., football) or impacts (e.g., biking) 
Trees, southern live oak (Quercus virginianaFlexible trunk and branches allow Live Oaks to respond to high winds. A complex underground root system provides increased stability. Buildings with interconnected foundations to provide support during hurricanes. Flexible outer coverings for buildings to protect inner building. 
Woodpeckers (Piciformes spp.) Woodpeckers drill holes in trees to find food. An internal structure (hyloid) attached to the tongue reduces vibration, protecting the bird from brain damage. Add a layer of internal protection, similar to the hyloid, to items needing protection: packages in transport, automobiles, protective gear. 
Natural ModelsNatural PhenomenonBiomimicry Designs
Hedgehog (Erinaceinae) Hedgehog spines absorb force to protect climbing hedgehogs falling from high places. Helmet liner (Hedgemon, LLC) to absorb force from hits (e.g., football) or impacts (e.g., biking) 
Trees, southern live oak (Quercus virginianaFlexible trunk and branches allow Live Oaks to respond to high winds. A complex underground root system provides increased stability. Buildings with interconnected foundations to provide support during hurricanes. Flexible outer coverings for buildings to protect inner building. 
Woodpeckers (Piciformes spp.) Woodpeckers drill holes in trees to find food. An internal structure (hyloid) attached to the tongue reduces vibration, protecting the bird from brain damage. Add a layer of internal protection, similar to the hyloid, to items needing protection: packages in transport, automobiles, protective gear. 
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