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Table 4.
Purposes of each phase and alignment with NGSS's practices.
PhasePurposeAlignment with NGSS
I. Create a driving question. By creating their own question about the big ideas, students are motivated and interested in learning the target concepts. This need to know defines, drives, and guides the whole process. Practice 1: asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) 
II. Construct a tentative model in groups. Students learn how to build a model that can be used to explain, rethink, and revise how the phenomena can be understood. Practice 2: developing and using models Practice 3: planning and carrying out investigations 
III. Construct a tentative argument in groups. Students learn how to make a claim that is aligned to a model that can be used to generate data. Analysis and interpretation of data used in the argument is strengthened over time with expertise from internal and external sources. Practice 4: analyzing and interpreting data Practice 5: engaging in argument from evidence 
IV. Negotiate models and arguments in a whole-class discussion. Revise models and arguments through negotiationStudents share models and arguments with peers; give feedback to other groups; realize the strengths and weaknesses of models and arguments in order to revise. Practice 6: constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
V. Consult the experts. Students evaluate their own models and arguments through comparisons to the expertise of internal and external sources. Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
VI. Reflect through individual writing. Captures the way in which student understanding of their own and the learning community's arguments and models developed and solidified as the unit of instruction progressed. Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
PhasePurposeAlignment with NGSS
I. Create a driving question. By creating their own question about the big ideas, students are motivated and interested in learning the target concepts. This need to know defines, drives, and guides the whole process. Practice 1: asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) 
II. Construct a tentative model in groups. Students learn how to build a model that can be used to explain, rethink, and revise how the phenomena can be understood. Practice 2: developing and using models Practice 3: planning and carrying out investigations 
III. Construct a tentative argument in groups. Students learn how to make a claim that is aligned to a model that can be used to generate data. Analysis and interpretation of data used in the argument is strengthened over time with expertise from internal and external sources. Practice 4: analyzing and interpreting data Practice 5: engaging in argument from evidence 
IV. Negotiate models and arguments in a whole-class discussion. Revise models and arguments through negotiationStudents share models and arguments with peers; give feedback to other groups; realize the strengths and weaknesses of models and arguments in order to revise. Practice 6: constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
V. Consult the experts. Students evaluate their own models and arguments through comparisons to the expertise of internal and external sources. Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
VI. Reflect through individual writing. Captures the way in which student understanding of their own and the learning community's arguments and models developed and solidified as the unit of instruction progressed. Practice 8: obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information 
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