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Table 1.
Levels of negotiation in whole-class discussion.
Level 1 LimitedLevel 2 DevelopingLevel 3 Refined
Negotiation Based on Model & Arguments 
  • Teacher does not use the structure and relationship between models and arguments to drive the discussion; teacher focuses on delivering the correct answer to students.

  • Students share and/or present their models and arguments.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use the model and argument structure to drive students’ conversation. Discussions of models are often isolated from argument structure because they are seen as separate pathways of understanding.

  • Students engage in using models and using arguments as means to drive understanding.

 
  • Teacher constantly engages students in the use of arguments and models to debate, discuss, debunk, and refine their ideas and purposefully help to link students’ models and arguments to driving question and big idea.

  • Students constantly share, use, and discuss all classroom models and arguments to construct and refine their conceptual understanding of the system.

 
Dialogic Interactions 
  • Teacher uses IRE (Initiates, Responds, Evaluates) patterns of questioning to seek single correct answer.

  • Students have little or no opportunity to ask questions and contribute their ideas to the discussion.

 
  • Teacher attempts to encourage students to ask questions and use students’ ideas as a basis of the discussion.

  • Students have opportunities to ask, engage with, and elaborate on questions and ideas posed by teacher and classmates.

 
  • Teacher models an array of questioning topologies and scaffolding techniques to help students create refined exchanges that include questioning, listening, and responding to ideas.

  • Students are careful listeners and respond to ideas with questions and statements that work to construct scientific consensus.

 
Multiple Representations 
  • Teacher focuses mostly on either model-making, verbal discussions, OR individual writing.

  • Students share their ideas with a model, discussion, OR summary writing piece without any integration of these aspects.

 
  • Teacher attempts to include in the verbal discussions the students’ emerging models and/or written ideas.

  • Students engage in verbal discussion aided by visual or written representations.

 
  • Teacher fluently and consistently utilizes multiple representations (e.g., pictures, diagrams, and tables, etc.) when discussing the big idea.

  • Students include spoken and written text, models, and other media as needed to represent coherently an understanding of the big idea.

 
Level 1 LimitedLevel 2 DevelopingLevel 3 Refined
Negotiation Based on Model & Arguments 
  • Teacher does not use the structure and relationship between models and arguments to drive the discussion; teacher focuses on delivering the correct answer to students.

  • Students share and/or present their models and arguments.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use the model and argument structure to drive students’ conversation. Discussions of models are often isolated from argument structure because they are seen as separate pathways of understanding.

  • Students engage in using models and using arguments as means to drive understanding.

 
  • Teacher constantly engages students in the use of arguments and models to debate, discuss, debunk, and refine their ideas and purposefully help to link students’ models and arguments to driving question and big idea.

  • Students constantly share, use, and discuss all classroom models and arguments to construct and refine their conceptual understanding of the system.

 
Dialogic Interactions 
  • Teacher uses IRE (Initiates, Responds, Evaluates) patterns of questioning to seek single correct answer.

  • Students have little or no opportunity to ask questions and contribute their ideas to the discussion.

 
  • Teacher attempts to encourage students to ask questions and use students’ ideas as a basis of the discussion.

  • Students have opportunities to ask, engage with, and elaborate on questions and ideas posed by teacher and classmates.

 
  • Teacher models an array of questioning topologies and scaffolding techniques to help students create refined exchanges that include questioning, listening, and responding to ideas.

  • Students are careful listeners and respond to ideas with questions and statements that work to construct scientific consensus.

 
Multiple Representations 
  • Teacher focuses mostly on either model-making, verbal discussions, OR individual writing.

  • Students share their ideas with a model, discussion, OR summary writing piece without any integration of these aspects.

 
  • Teacher attempts to include in the verbal discussions the students’ emerging models and/or written ideas.

  • Students engage in verbal discussion aided by visual or written representations.

 
  • Teacher fluently and consistently utilizes multiple representations (e.g., pictures, diagrams, and tables, etc.) when discussing the big idea.

  • Students include spoken and written text, models, and other media as needed to represent coherently an understanding of the big idea.

 
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