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Table 3.

Typology of Human–Nature Relational Models (RMs).

RMClear Society Versus Nature DistinctionNature Entity With AgencyPositioning of Nature Vis-à-Vis HumansGoal OrientationPractices
Devotion No Yes Sacred and superior whole (deity) Please the sacred Rituals and adoration to show respect and care 
Guardianship No Yes Humans are part of nature Identity, respect, and care for our common house Rules and agreements of care and integration for “buen vivir” (good living) 
Conservationism Yes No Nature has intrinsic values Maintain original state, protect nature from humans Delimitation of protected areas and creation of regulations 
Reciprocity No Yes Equality Exchange and seek balance Mutual responsibilities, attribution of human features and rights to nature 
Utilization Yes No Unlimited resources on the service of humans Maximize services and goods Appropriation, commercialization, economic benefits, and rational calculations 
Domination Yes No Menacing and inferior Control threats Appropriation and destruction of nature for survival 
Detachment Yes No Nature as inexistent or lacking significance Technological solutions to human problems Indifference, absence of codified practices, other problems seem to be more important 
RMClear Society Versus Nature DistinctionNature Entity With AgencyPositioning of Nature Vis-à-Vis HumansGoal OrientationPractices
Devotion No Yes Sacred and superior whole (deity) Please the sacred Rituals and adoration to show respect and care 
Guardianship No Yes Humans are part of nature Identity, respect, and care for our common house Rules and agreements of care and integration for “buen vivir” (good living) 
Conservationism Yes No Nature has intrinsic values Maintain original state, protect nature from humans Delimitation of protected areas and creation of regulations 
Reciprocity No Yes Equality Exchange and seek balance Mutual responsibilities, attribution of human features and rights to nature 
Utilization Yes No Unlimited resources on the service of humans Maximize services and goods Appropriation, commercialization, economic benefits, and rational calculations 
Domination Yes No Menacing and inferior Control threats Appropriation and destruction of nature for survival 
Detachment Yes No Nature as inexistent or lacking significance Technological solutions to human problems Indifference, absence of codified practices, other problems seem to be more important 

Source: Adapted from Muradian and Pascual [1].

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