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Table 2.

Plant character species profiles.

Native PlantsExotic Plants
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Black-eyed Susan is a native wildflower that blooms from June to August. It occurs in both dry and moist soils, prefers full sun, and can grow up to 3 feet tall. It can be found in prairies, forest openings, and disturbed areas. It can recover moderately well from fire and can reseed new areas effectively, but it may eventually lose ground to longer-lived or taller plants. 
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)
Garlic mustard was introduced from Europe, perhaps for culinary use. It can grow to 2 feet in height and prefers shade to partial sun. It blooms in May, and each plant can produce hundreds of seeds. Initially, fire may increase new growth, but over time it can decrease garlic mustard populations. This species aggressively invades forests and forest edges and can exclude other species from the forest understory. 
Wild geranium (Geranium maculatum)
Wild geranium is a wildflower that can grow up to 2 feet tall in moist to moderately dry soil. This species prefers light shade to partial sun and is more common in woodlands than open habitat, but it will tolerate full sun. It is not usually found on disturbed sites. It can recover well following a fire. It blooms from April to June. 
Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata)
Introduced from Asia for use in erosion control, Chinese lespedeza tolerates a variety of soil conditions but does not tolerate shade. Stems may reach 5 feet tall, and flowers bloom from July to October. Lespedeza produces toxins that harm nearby plants. This species can recover from fire quickly; fire increases seed germination. Lespedeza displaces native species in prairies, pastures, roadsides, and field edges. 
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)
Eastern redcedar, a native evergreen tree, can tolerate a wide range of soil types and soil moisture levels. It is found in forests but can also quickly colonize prairies, old pastures, field edges and along highways, where it can shade out wildflowers. Historically, frequent forest fires reduced redcedars in pastures and prairies, but human suppression of fire has indirectly served to increase populations of this tree. 
Bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii)
Bush honeysuckle was introduced from Asia as an ornamental plant. It can grow to heights of 6–20 feet and tolerates shade to partial sun, as well as a broad range of soils and moisture levels. It thrives in disturbed habitats and woodland openings, where it often replaces native shrubs and eliminates woodland wildflowers from the forest floor. This shrub does not recover from fire quickly. 
Native PlantsExotic Plants
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Black-eyed Susan is a native wildflower that blooms from June to August. It occurs in both dry and moist soils, prefers full sun, and can grow up to 3 feet tall. It can be found in prairies, forest openings, and disturbed areas. It can recover moderately well from fire and can reseed new areas effectively, but it may eventually lose ground to longer-lived or taller plants. 
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata)
Garlic mustard was introduced from Europe, perhaps for culinary use. It can grow to 2 feet in height and prefers shade to partial sun. It blooms in May, and each plant can produce hundreds of seeds. Initially, fire may increase new growth, but over time it can decrease garlic mustard populations. This species aggressively invades forests and forest edges and can exclude other species from the forest understory. 
Wild geranium (Geranium maculatum)
Wild geranium is a wildflower that can grow up to 2 feet tall in moist to moderately dry soil. This species prefers light shade to partial sun and is more common in woodlands than open habitat, but it will tolerate full sun. It is not usually found on disturbed sites. It can recover well following a fire. It blooms from April to June. 
Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata)
Introduced from Asia for use in erosion control, Chinese lespedeza tolerates a variety of soil conditions but does not tolerate shade. Stems may reach 5 feet tall, and flowers bloom from July to October. Lespedeza produces toxins that harm nearby plants. This species can recover from fire quickly; fire increases seed germination. Lespedeza displaces native species in prairies, pastures, roadsides, and field edges. 
Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)
Eastern redcedar, a native evergreen tree, can tolerate a wide range of soil types and soil moisture levels. It is found in forests but can also quickly colonize prairies, old pastures, field edges and along highways, where it can shade out wildflowers. Historically, frequent forest fires reduced redcedars in pastures and prairies, but human suppression of fire has indirectly served to increase populations of this tree. 
Bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii)
Bush honeysuckle was introduced from Asia as an ornamental plant. It can grow to heights of 6–20 feet and tolerates shade to partial sun, as well as a broad range of soils and moisture levels. It thrives in disturbed habitats and woodland openings, where it often replaces native shrubs and eliminates woodland wildflowers from the forest floor. This shrub does not recover from fire quickly. 
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