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Table 6. Likelihood ratio tests on individual differences and the role of reader characteristics (i.e., justification beliefs, English proficiency).
Likelihood Ratio TestComprehensibilityKnowledge AcquisitionCredibilityAbility to EvaluateAbility to Make a Decision
 Added Parameters χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p 
Random Intercept Participant 282.67 <.001 39.10 <.001 527.41 <.001 1014.50 <.001 789.07 <.001 
Random Slope OSA by Participant 8.87 .012 -1 -1 -1 8.07 .018 17.90 <.001 -1 -1 -1 
Random Slope No Subheadings by Participant 0.52 .771 0.84 .656 3.01 .222 -1 -1 -1 3.55 .170 
Justification Beliefs on Random Intercept 6.24 .101 4.37 .224 25.99 <.001 9.56 .023 11.20 .011 
Justification Beliefs on Random Slope OSA 15.45 .017 -2 -2 -2 2.04 .564 3.80 .284 -2 -2 -2 
English Proficiency on Random Intercept 6.01 .014 24.75 <.001 1.548 .214 0.01 .933 0.00 .998 
English Proficiency on Random Slope OSA 0.56 .455 -2 -2 -2 3.31 .191 0.03 .990 -2 -2 -2 
Likelihood Ratio TestComprehensibilityKnowledge AcquisitionCredibilityAbility to EvaluateAbility to Make a Decision
 Added Parameters χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p χ2 df p 
Random Intercept Participant 282.67 <.001 39.10 <.001 527.41 <.001 1014.50 <.001 789.07 <.001 
Random Slope OSA by Participant 8.87 .012 -1 -1 -1 8.07 .018 17.90 <.001 -1 -1 -1 
Random Slope No Subheadings by Participant 0.52 .771 0.84 .656 3.01 .222 -1 -1 -1 3.55 .170 
Justification Beliefs on Random Intercept 6.24 .101 4.37 .224 25.99 <.001 9.56 .023 11.20 .011 
Justification Beliefs on Random Slope OSA 15.45 .017 -2 -2 -2 2.04 .564 3.80 .284 -2 -2 -2 
English Proficiency on Random Intercept 6.01 .014 24.75 <.001 1.548 .214 0.01 .933 0.00 .998 
English Proficiency on Random Slope OSA 0.56 .455 -2 -2 -2 3.31 .191 0.03 .990 -2 -2 -2 

Note: OSA = ordinary scientific abstract; χ2 = chi-square statistic; df = degrees of freedom, p = p-value of the chi-squared test. In column 1, information on the parameters that were tested in the corresponding LR test are provided. First, tests on the significance of random intercepts (row 1) and random slopes for both experimental conditions (i.e., with plain language summary with subheadings as a reference category) were conducted (row 2, 3). If these tests on random effects were significant, we conducted subsequent LR tests to examine if epistemic justification beliefs (row 4, 5) or English proficiency (row 6, 7) were able to explain variation in random intercepts (row 4, 6) or random slopes for ordinary scientific abstracts (row 5, 7). Since all LR tests on random slopes for the effect of plain language summaries without subheadings were non-significant (row 3), the corresponding tests with epistemic justification beliefs and English proficiency were not conducted and these rows are therefore omitted from this table.

1No test because model estimation problems occurred.

2No test because random slope was non-significant in preceding analyses.

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