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Table 5. Results of exploratory analyses on epistemic emotions. Estimates are based on mixed models with (contrasts of) fixed effects for type of presented research summary (plain language summary with/without subheadings and ordinary scientific abstract) and random effects for participant and study.
Epistemic EmotionParameterESTSEpSTD.EST
Curiosity Random Effect Participant 0.353    
 Random Effect Study 0.114    
 Residual 0.924    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 2.978 0.115 <.001  
 No Subheadings -0.100 0.054 .066 -0.104 
 OSA -0.359 0.054 <.001 -0.374 
 OSA – No Subheadings -0.259 0.053 <.001 -0.270 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .016/.346    
Boredom1 Random Effect Participant 0.248    
 Random Effect Study 0.063    
 Residual 0.620    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.645 0.083 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.120 0.045 .007 0.152 
 OSA 0.136 0.044 .002 0.173 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.017 0.043 .697 0.021 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .004/.336    
Confusion Random Effect Participant 0.198    
 Random Effect Study 0.125    
 Residual 0.643    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.553 0.113 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.190 0.045 <.001 0.237 
 OSA 0.458 0.045 <.001 0.571 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.268 0.044 <.001 0.334 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .035/.358    
Frustration Random Effect Participant 0.234    
 Random Effect Study 0.036    
 Residual 0.546    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.391 0.073 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.142 0.042 <.001 0.193 
 OSA 0.228 0.042 <.001 0.309 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.086 0.041 .035 0.116 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .011/.339    
Epistemic EmotionParameterESTSEpSTD.EST
Curiosity Random Effect Participant 0.353    
 Random Effect Study 0.114    
 Residual 0.924    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 2.978 0.115 <.001  
 No Subheadings -0.100 0.054 .066 -0.104 
 OSA -0.359 0.054 <.001 -0.374 
 OSA – No Subheadings -0.259 0.053 <.001 -0.270 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .016/.346    
Boredom1 Random Effect Participant 0.248    
 Random Effect Study 0.063    
 Residual 0.620    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.645 0.083 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.120 0.045 .007 0.152 
 OSA 0.136 0.044 .002 0.173 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.017 0.043 .697 0.021 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .004/.336    
Confusion Random Effect Participant 0.198    
 Random Effect Study 0.125    
 Residual 0.643    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.553 0.113 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.190 0.045 <.001 0.237 
 OSA 0.458 0.045 <.001 0.571 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.268 0.044 <.001 0.334 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .035/.358    
Frustration Random Effect Participant 0.234    
 Random Effect Study 0.036    
 Residual 0.546    
 Intercept (PLS with Subheadings) 1.391 0.073 <.001  
 No Subheadings 0.142 0.042 <.001 0.193 
 OSA 0.228 0.042 <.001 0.309 
 OSA – No Subheadings 0.086 0.041 .035 0.116 
 Marginal R2/Conditional R2 .011/.339    

Note:EST = estimates for variances of residuals and random effects, unstandardized regression weights and marginal/conditional R2(see Nakagawa et al., 2013); SE = standard error, p = p-value of two-tailed significance test, STD. EST = standardized regression weights, PLS = plain language summary, OSA = ordinary scientific abstract; all epistemic emotions were measured on 1 to 5 Likert scales

1We employed ML optimization (instead of REML), as we encountered convergence issues using the REML criterion.

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