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Table 2. Sample description.
 CovariateMeasurementMSD
Semester Number of semesters participants studied with regard to the primary degree1 they currently pursued 4.158 3.362 
English Language Proficiency Score on the short scale of a standardized English as a second language test 51.2532 6.063 
Personal Justification Mean value of the personal justification scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 2.299 0.914 
Justification by Authority Mean value of the justification by authority scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 3.819 0.819 
Justification by Multiple Sources Mean value of the justification by multiple sources scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 5.026 0.783 
 CovariateMeasurementMSD
Semester Number of semesters participants studied with regard to the primary degree1 they currently pursued 4.158 3.362 
English Language Proficiency Score on the short scale of a standardized English as a second language test 51.2532 6.063 
Personal Justification Mean value of the personal justification scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 2.299 0.914 
Justification by Authority Mean value of the justification by authority scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 3.819 0.819 
Justification by Multiple Sources Mean value of the justification by multiple sources scale. Assessed by 3 items on 1 to 6 Likert scales 5.026 0.783 

Note:M = arithmetic mean; SD = standard deviation; N is 166 for all variables but semester; for semester N is 165 since one participant provided no answer on the corresponding item.

1 102 students (61.45 %) were enrolled in Bachelor degree programs, 57 students (34.34 %) in master degree programs and 7 (4.22 %) in other study programs.

2 This mean English language proficiency score corresponds to a stanine value of 8 according to the test manual

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