Levels of public negotiation.
Teacher initiates closed-ended questions to seek single correct answer.
Students have few opportunities to discuss their ideas.
Teacher attempts to ask open-ended questions to engage students in the conversation.
Students can express, elaborate, and clarify their ideas in the conversation.
Teacher constantly asks different layers of questions (i.e., Bloom’s Taxonomy) to elicit, compare, challenge, and synthesize students’ ideas to get a consensus.
Students listen to other ideas and construct scientific knowledge through conversation.
Teacher focuses only on a single mode (talk or writing) to engage students in discussion.
Students discuss their ideas without using writing as another negotiated tool.
Teacher attempts to use both talk and written representations to help students communicate their ideas.
Students use written representations to scaffold their discussion.
Teacher consistently requires students to communicate their ideas through different modes and connect them to the big idea (talk, texts, diagrams, figures, pictures, concrete materials, etc.).
Students used a variety of modes to represent and communicate their arguments.
Teacher does not use the argument structure to drive the conversation or focuses on getting the correct answer for claims and evidence.
Students are only involved in the presentations of their arguments, rather than in debating their ideas on the basis of their claims and evidence.
Teacher attempts to use the argument structure to establish the dialogical interactions (e.g., How does your evidence support the claim, How does your claim connect to the big idea, etc.).
Students engage in argumentative dialogue using the structure of questions, claims, and evidence.
Teacher consistently encourages students to use the three components of argument and to link big ideas, questions, claims, and evidence.
Students can engage in justifying their argument, provide feedback to other groups’ arguments, are aware their weakness of argument, and are willing to revise.
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