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Table 1.

Levels of public negotiation.

LEVEL 1 LimitedLEVEL 2 BasicLEVEL 3 Exemplary
Dialogical Interactions 
  • Teacher initiates closed-ended questions to seek single correct answer.

  • Students have few opportunities to discuss their ideas.

 
  • Teacher attempts to ask open-ended questions to engage students in the conversation.

  • Students can express, elaborate, and clarify their ideas in the conversation.

 
  • Teacher constantly asks different layers of questions (i.e., Bloom’s Taxonomy) to elicit, compare, challenge, and synthesize students’ ideas to get a consensus.

  • Students listen to other ideas and construct scientific knowledge through conversation.

 
Representation 
  • Teacher focuses only on a single mode (talk or writing) to engage students in discussion.

  • Students discuss their ideas without using writing as another negotiated tool.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use both talk and written representations to help students communicate their ideas.

  • Students use written representations to scaffold their discussion.

 
  • Teacher consistently requires students to communicate their ideas through different modes and connect them to the big idea (talk, texts, diagrams, figures, pictures, concrete materials, etc.).

  • Students used a variety of modes to represent and communicate their arguments.

 
Science Argument 
  • Teacher does not use the argument structure to drive the conversation or focuses on getting the correct answer for claims and evidence.

  • Students are only involved in the presentations of their arguments, rather than in debating their ideas on the basis of their claims and evidence.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use the argument structure to establish the dialogical interactions (e.g., How does your evidence support the claim, How does your claim connect to the big idea, etc.).

  • Students engage in argumentative dialogue using the structure of questions, claims, and evidence.

 
  • Teacher consistently encourages students to use the three components of argument and to link big ideas, questions, claims, and evidence.

  • Students can engage in justifying their argument, provide feedback to other groups’ arguments, are aware their weakness of argument, and are willing to revise.

 
LEVEL 1 LimitedLEVEL 2 BasicLEVEL 3 Exemplary
Dialogical Interactions 
  • Teacher initiates closed-ended questions to seek single correct answer.

  • Students have few opportunities to discuss their ideas.

 
  • Teacher attempts to ask open-ended questions to engage students in the conversation.

  • Students can express, elaborate, and clarify their ideas in the conversation.

 
  • Teacher constantly asks different layers of questions (i.e., Bloom’s Taxonomy) to elicit, compare, challenge, and synthesize students’ ideas to get a consensus.

  • Students listen to other ideas and construct scientific knowledge through conversation.

 
Representation 
  • Teacher focuses only on a single mode (talk or writing) to engage students in discussion.

  • Students discuss their ideas without using writing as another negotiated tool.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use both talk and written representations to help students communicate their ideas.

  • Students use written representations to scaffold their discussion.

 
  • Teacher consistently requires students to communicate their ideas through different modes and connect them to the big idea (talk, texts, diagrams, figures, pictures, concrete materials, etc.).

  • Students used a variety of modes to represent and communicate their arguments.

 
Science Argument 
  • Teacher does not use the argument structure to drive the conversation or focuses on getting the correct answer for claims and evidence.

  • Students are only involved in the presentations of their arguments, rather than in debating their ideas on the basis of their claims and evidence.

 
  • Teacher attempts to use the argument structure to establish the dialogical interactions (e.g., How does your evidence support the claim, How does your claim connect to the big idea, etc.).

  • Students engage in argumentative dialogue using the structure of questions, claims, and evidence.

 
  • Teacher consistently encourages students to use the three components of argument and to link big ideas, questions, claims, and evidence.

  • Students can engage in justifying their argument, provide feedback to other groups’ arguments, are aware their weakness of argument, and are willing to revise.

 
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