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Table 2.

Sustainable Land Management (SLM) Approaches.

SLM ApproachImplementation Example
Biophysical (early indicators) Agronomy Cover crops 
Crop rotations and intercropping with nitrogen fixing crops 
Organic fertilization Compost 
Animal and green manure 
Minimum soil disturbance Minimum tillage 
Mulching 
Agroforestry Trees on cropland (contours, intercropping) 
Bush and tree fallows 
Live barriers/buffer strips with woody species 
Socioeconomic (emerging indicators) Social welfare Conflict resolution 
Population growth rate 
Rural poverty rate 
Economic Income distribution 
Access to markets 
Governance Tenure/land use rights 
SLM ApproachImplementation Example
Biophysical (early indicators) Agronomy Cover crops 
Crop rotations and intercropping with nitrogen fixing crops 
Organic fertilization Compost 
Animal and green manure 
Minimum soil disturbance Minimum tillage 
Mulching 
Agroforestry Trees on cropland (contours, intercropping) 
Bush and tree fallows 
Live barriers/buffer strips with woody species 
Socioeconomic (emerging indicators) Social welfare Conflict resolution 
Population growth rate 
Rural poverty rate 
Economic Income distribution 
Access to markets 
Governance Tenure/land use rights 
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