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Table 4.
Paired t-test comparisons of students’ overall performance (percentage) on pretests and posttests, by semester.
Fall 2016Spring 2017Fall 2017Spring 2018
Pretest percentage (X¯ ± SE) 77 ± 2 66 ± 2 67 ± 2 71 ± 2 
Posttest percentage (X¯ ± ± SE) 91 ± 1 77 ± 3 80 ± 3 84 ± 2 
n 107 55 65 71 
t 8.878 3.786 5.504 7.439 
p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 
Cohen's d 0.858 0.511 0.683 0.883 
Fall 2016Spring 2017Fall 2017Spring 2018
Pretest percentage (X¯ ± SE) 77 ± 2 66 ± 2 67 ± 2 71 ± 2 
Posttest percentage (X¯ ± ± SE) 91 ± 1 77 ± 3 80 ± 3 84 ± 2 
n 107 55 65 71 
t 8.878 3.786 5.504 7.439 
p <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 
Cohen's d 0.858 0.511 0.683 0.883 
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