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Table 1

Implications of organic principles for plant breeding following Lammerts van Bueren (2010). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.429.t1

PrincipleConsequence of IFOAM principle for plant breeding

 
Health Maintains wholeness and integrity of living systems and organisms, and promotes robustness and resilience 
Ecology Supports optimal functioning of ecosystems through regional adaptability, and decentralized and participatory breeding for ecologically beneficial traits 
Fairness Serves equity respect, justice and stewardship of our shared world, including free access to genetic resources, prohibiting patents on life, and benefit sharing. 
Care Enhancing efficiency and productivity in a precautionary an responsible manner. 
PrincipleConsequence of IFOAM principle for plant breeding

 
Health Maintains wholeness and integrity of living systems and organisms, and promotes robustness and resilience 
Ecology Supports optimal functioning of ecosystems through regional adaptability, and decentralized and participatory breeding for ecologically beneficial traits 
Fairness Serves equity respect, justice and stewardship of our shared world, including free access to genetic resources, prohibiting patents on life, and benefit sharing. 
Care Enhancing efficiency and productivity in a precautionary an responsible manner. 
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