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Table 1.

Operational Definitions of Relevant Terms in Discussing Interpersonal Musical Entrainment, as Employed in This Paper

TermOperational definition
Interonset Interval (IOI) Duration between the attack points of two successive auditory events 
Rhythm A sequence of auditory event durations or inter-onset intervals 
Beat A regular/repeated pulse that is abstracted from (and not necessarily perceptually present in) the rhythmical surface. Multiple beat levels combine to form a meter. Typically in the IOI range 250-2000 ms. 
Subdivision A fast regular/repeated pulse that is abstracted from the rhythmical surface, which subdivides the slower “beat.” Typically in the IOI range 100-250 ms. 
Meter A hierarchical structure, comprising two or more levels, into which beats and beat subdivisions are organized 
(Metrical) cycle A periodically repeating pattern comprising a hierarchical arrangement of beats on more than one level. Actual musical events or rhythmic patterns do not need to repeat periodically for a periodic metrical cycle to be inferred, although they may do so. 
Metrical position Location within the metrical hierarchy, i.e. beat or subdivision number. 
Tactus The beat level which is most comfortable to tap along to. Typically in the IOI range 350-700 ms. 
Tempo The perceived speed of the music, usually calculated as the frequency of the tactus (beats per minute). 
Event density The number of musical events (e.g., note onsets) occurring per unit of time. 
Entrainment The interaction of autonomous rhythmic (oscillatory) processes, often resulting in their synchronization. 
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) “[T]he rhythmic coordination of perception and action” (Repp, 2005). In a musical context, the process by which musicians use sensory input in order to synchronize with co-performers. 
Coordination Coordination can mean any process enabling medium and long-term musical processes (roughly > 2 s) to be or remain temporally aligned. This can include the cueing of transitions and the use of mutual attention and coordinated body movement to manage changes or reaffirm a shared understanding of the musical structure. 
Non-isochrony A regular pattern of unequal time intervals (usually at beat or subdivision levels). 
TermOperational definition
Interonset Interval (IOI) Duration between the attack points of two successive auditory events 
Rhythm A sequence of auditory event durations or inter-onset intervals 
Beat A regular/repeated pulse that is abstracted from (and not necessarily perceptually present in) the rhythmical surface. Multiple beat levels combine to form a meter. Typically in the IOI range 250-2000 ms. 
Subdivision A fast regular/repeated pulse that is abstracted from the rhythmical surface, which subdivides the slower “beat.” Typically in the IOI range 100-250 ms. 
Meter A hierarchical structure, comprising two or more levels, into which beats and beat subdivisions are organized 
(Metrical) cycle A periodically repeating pattern comprising a hierarchical arrangement of beats on more than one level. Actual musical events or rhythmic patterns do not need to repeat periodically for a periodic metrical cycle to be inferred, although they may do so. 
Metrical position Location within the metrical hierarchy, i.e. beat or subdivision number. 
Tactus The beat level which is most comfortable to tap along to. Typically in the IOI range 350-700 ms. 
Tempo The perceived speed of the music, usually calculated as the frequency of the tactus (beats per minute). 
Event density The number of musical events (e.g., note onsets) occurring per unit of time. 
Entrainment The interaction of autonomous rhythmic (oscillatory) processes, often resulting in their synchronization. 
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) “[T]he rhythmic coordination of perception and action” (Repp, 2005). In a musical context, the process by which musicians use sensory input in order to synchronize with co-performers. 
Coordination Coordination can mean any process enabling medium and long-term musical processes (roughly > 2 s) to be or remain temporally aligned. This can include the cueing of transitions and the use of mutual attention and coordinated body movement to manage changes or reaffirm a shared understanding of the musical structure. 
Non-isochrony A regular pattern of unequal time intervals (usually at beat or subdivision levels). 
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