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Table 1.

Sample assessment tasks. (A) reproduction task and (B) transfer task.

(A) Size-selective harvesting of Atlantic cod(B) Trophy hunting of Asian elephants
During the 20th century, cod has been intensively fished over decades in the northeast Atlantic. Because of the mesh size of the nets, larger fish have been more frequently caught than smaller ones. Over the last 60 years, this resulted in declining numbers of cod as well as smaller cod, whose average body size decreased from 95 cm to 65 cm. Explain in as much detail as possible, how cod fishing caused the body size of cod to decrease.
After cod fishing was stopped, the average body size of cod did not increase at all, or if it did, it increased only very slowly. Explain causes for this phenomenon as much detail as possible. 
Tusks of Asian bull elephants are an important characteristic for finding a mate. Elephant cows prefer bulls with long tusks because they signal strength and health. Moreover bulls with long tusks have advantages in rival fights. However, the average length of Asian elephant tusks have decreased in recent decades. Trophy hunting was held accountable for this phenomenon. Explain in as much detail as possible, how trophy hunting caused tusk length to decrease.
After trophy hunting and poaching were prohibited, the average tusk length did not increase at all, or if it did, it increased only very slowly. Explain causes for this phenomenon in as much detail as possible. 
(A) Size-selective harvesting of Atlantic cod(B) Trophy hunting of Asian elephants
During the 20th century, cod has been intensively fished over decades in the northeast Atlantic. Because of the mesh size of the nets, larger fish have been more frequently caught than smaller ones. Over the last 60 years, this resulted in declining numbers of cod as well as smaller cod, whose average body size decreased from 95 cm to 65 cm. Explain in as much detail as possible, how cod fishing caused the body size of cod to decrease.
After cod fishing was stopped, the average body size of cod did not increase at all, or if it did, it increased only very slowly. Explain causes for this phenomenon as much detail as possible. 
Tusks of Asian bull elephants are an important characteristic for finding a mate. Elephant cows prefer bulls with long tusks because they signal strength and health. Moreover bulls with long tusks have advantages in rival fights. However, the average length of Asian elephant tusks have decreased in recent decades. Trophy hunting was held accountable for this phenomenon. Explain in as much detail as possible, how trophy hunting caused tusk length to decrease.
After trophy hunting and poaching were prohibited, the average tusk length did not increase at all, or if it did, it increased only very slowly. Explain causes for this phenomenon in as much detail as possible. 
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