Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Summary of Results for Processing Red Color and Intellectual Performance.

ExperimentOutcomeNCountry% FemaleAge groupCohen’s d95% CI

 
Lichtenfeld et al. (2009) 

 
Experiment 1 Verbal analogies 49 Germany 33% Highschool students 0.57 [–0.01, 1.14]a 
Experiment 2 Verbal analogies 44 Germany 100% Highschool students 0.73 [0.14, 1.32] 
Experiment 3 Numeric reasoning 40 Germany 65% Highschool students 0.64 [0.05, 1.22] 
Experiment 4 Numeric reasoning 20 Germany 30% Highschool students 0.99 [0.36, 1.60] 
Present study: Direct replications of Experiment 2 

 
Experiment 1 Verbal analogies 69 Austria 59% Highschool students 0.04 [–0.44, 0.51] 
Experiment 2 Verbal analogies 104 Austria 34% Undergraduates –0.23 [–0.61, 0.16] 
Present study: Conceptual replications of Experiment 2 

 
Experiment 3 General knowledge 103 Germany 76% Undergraduates 0.19 [–0.19, 0.57] 
Experiment 4 General knowledge 1,149 Germany 47% Adults 0.01 [–0.11, 0.13] 
ExperimentOutcomeNCountry% FemaleAge groupCohen’s d95% CI

 
Lichtenfeld et al. (2009) 

 
Experiment 1 Verbal analogies 49 Germany 33% Highschool students 0.57 [–0.01, 1.14]a 
Experiment 2 Verbal analogies 44 Germany 100% Highschool students 0.73 [0.14, 1.32] 
Experiment 3 Numeric reasoning 40 Germany 65% Highschool students 0.64 [0.05, 1.22] 
Experiment 4 Numeric reasoning 20 Germany 30% Highschool students 0.99 [0.36, 1.60] 
Present study: Direct replications of Experiment 2 

 
Experiment 1 Verbal analogies 69 Austria 59% Highschool students 0.04 [–0.44, 0.51] 
Experiment 2 Verbal analogies 104 Austria 34% Undergraduates –0.23 [–0.61, 0.16] 
Present study: Conceptual replications of Experiment 2 

 
Experiment 3 General knowledge 103 Germany 76% Undergraduates 0.19 [–0.19, 0.57] 
Experiment 4 General knowledge 1,149 Germany 47% Adults 0.01 [–0.11, 0.13] 

Note: The effect sizes were coded in such a way that positive values indicate lower scores in the red color condition as compared to the control condition. a The effect was reported as “F(1, 47) = 3.91, p ≤ .05” in Lichtenfeld et al. (2009, p. 1274), which is not strictly significant (p = .054) at the conventional alpha level of 5%.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal