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Table 10

Study 4: Means, Standard Deviations and Effect Sizes.

OutcomeHigh-Choice ConditionLow-Choice Conditiondadz

MeansSDMeansSD

 
Money Spent 4.12 1.76 4.02 2.01 0.05 0.04 
Perceived Choice 8.16 7.65 –8.20 6.12 2.36 1.56 
Positive Affect 5.21 1.45 2.75 1.61 1.61 1.31 
Negative Affect 1.35 0.78 2.61 1.34 1.15 0.91 
OutcomeHigh-Choice ConditionLow-Choice Conditiondadz

MeansSDMeansSD

 
Money Spent 4.12 1.76 4.02 2.01 0.05 0.04 
Perceived Choice 8.16 7.65 –8.20 6.12 2.36 1.56 
Positive Affect 5.21 1.45 2.75 1.61 1.61 1.31 
Negative Affect 1.35 0.78 2.61 1.34 1.15 0.91 

Note: Cohen’s d (raw) is calculated with the difference between raw means. Cohen’sd (adjusted) is calculated with the difference between means that adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate. Cohen’s dz is calculated by dividing the mean difference score by its standard deviation; a difference score was calculated for each participant by subtracting their score in the low-choice condition from their score in the high-choice condition; the difference does not adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate.

a In Study 4, the amount of money spent on someone else or a cause did not vary by condition. Thus, no adjusted means were computed because amount of money spent was not included as a time-varying covariate during data analysis.

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