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Table 7

Study 1b: Means, Standard Deviations and Effect Sizes.

OutcomeLifetime ConditionRecent Conditiondraw (dadjusted)dz

MeansaSDMeansaSD

 
Money Spent 4.92 1.73 3.73 1.80 0.67 0.54 
Positive Affect 5.81 (5.75) 0.97 5.04 (5.10) 1.35 0.66 (0.55) 0.61 
Negative Affect 1.35 (1.32) 0.78 1.47 (1.49) 0.87 0.15 (0.21) 0.16 
Perceived Choice 8.86 (8.60) 6.44 6.20 (6.46) 6.96 0.40 (0.32) 0.38 
Impact 5.62 (5.41) 1.15 4.90 (5.11) 1.46 0.55 (0.23) 0.49 
Social Connection 5.70 (5.64) 0.99 5.32 (5.38) 0.98 0.39 (0.26) 0.41 
Closeness 
  Dibble, Levine, & Park (2011) 4.79 (4.53) 1.73 3.64 (3.90) 1.86 0.64 (0.35) 0.58 
  IOS 4.56 (4.36) 1.85 3.97 (4.17) 1.98 0.31 (0.10) 0.33 
OutcomeLifetime ConditionRecent Conditiondraw (dadjusted)dz

MeansaSDMeansaSD

 
Money Spent 4.92 1.73 3.73 1.80 0.67 0.54 
Positive Affect 5.81 (5.75) 0.97 5.04 (5.10) 1.35 0.66 (0.55) 0.61 
Negative Affect 1.35 (1.32) 0.78 1.47 (1.49) 0.87 0.15 (0.21) 0.16 
Perceived Choice 8.86 (8.60) 6.44 6.20 (6.46) 6.96 0.40 (0.32) 0.38 
Impact 5.62 (5.41) 1.15 4.90 (5.11) 1.46 0.55 (0.23) 0.49 
Social Connection 5.70 (5.64) 0.99 5.32 (5.38) 0.98 0.39 (0.26) 0.41 
Closeness 
  Dibble, Levine, & Park (2011) 4.79 (4.53) 1.73 3.64 (3.90) 1.86 0.64 (0.35) 0.58 
  IOS 4.56 (4.36) 1.85 3.97 (4.17) 1.98 0.31 (0.10) 0.33 

Note: Cohen’s d (raw) is calculated with the difference between raw means. Cohen’sd (adjusted) is calculated with the difference between means that adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate. Cohen’s dz is calculated by dividing the mean difference score by its standard deviation; a difference score was calculated for each participant by subtracting their score in the recent condition from their score in the lifetime condition; the difference does not adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate.

a Adjusted means reported in parentheses.

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