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Table 6

Study 1a: Means, Standard Deviations and Effect Sizes.

OutcomeHappy ConditionUnhappy Conditiondraw (dadjusted)dz

MeansaSDMeansaSD

Money Spent 4.48 1.84 3.81 1.96 0.35 0.30 
Positive Affect 5.64 (5.62) 1.25 1.70 (1.72) 0.99 3.49 (3.46) 2.35 
Negative Affect 1.22 (1.20) 0.58 3.80 (3.82) 1.37 2.45 (2.49) 1.74 
Perceived Choice 6.98 (6.95) 7.31 –3.12 (–3.09) 8.96 1.24 (1.23) N/A 
Impact 5.32 (5.20) 1.40 3.28 (3.40) 1.66 1.33 (1.17) 1.06 
Social Connection 5.63 (5.60) 1.16 3.60 (3.63) 1.35 1.61 (1.57) 1.26 
Closeness to Recipient 
  Dibble, Levine, & Park (2011) 4.53 (4.40) 1.83 2.68 (2.81) 1.66 1.06 (0.91) 0.93 
  IOS 4.45 (4.36) 1.89 2.30 (2.38) 1.69 1.20 (1.10) 0.92 
OutcomeHappy ConditionUnhappy Conditiondraw (dadjusted)dz

MeansaSDMeansaSD

Money Spent 4.48 1.84 3.81 1.96 0.35 0.30 
Positive Affect 5.64 (5.62) 1.25 1.70 (1.72) 0.99 3.49 (3.46) 2.35 
Negative Affect 1.22 (1.20) 0.58 3.80 (3.82) 1.37 2.45 (2.49) 1.74 
Perceived Choice 6.98 (6.95) 7.31 –3.12 (–3.09) 8.96 1.24 (1.23) N/A 
Impact 5.32 (5.20) 1.40 3.28 (3.40) 1.66 1.33 (1.17) 1.06 
Social Connection 5.63 (5.60) 1.16 3.60 (3.63) 1.35 1.61 (1.57) 1.26 
Closeness to Recipient 
  Dibble, Levine, & Park (2011) 4.53 (4.40) 1.83 2.68 (2.81) 1.66 1.06 (0.91) 0.93 
  IOS 4.45 (4.36) 1.89 2.30 (2.38) 1.69 1.20 (1.10) 0.92 

Note: Cohen’s d (raw) is calculated with the difference between raw means. Cohen’sd (adjusted) is calculated with the difference between means that adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate. Cohen’s dz is calculated by dividing the mean difference score by its standard deviation; a difference score was calculated for each participant by subtracting their score in the unhappy condition from their score in the happy condition; the difference does not adjust for amount of money spent as a covariate.

a Adjusted means reported in parentheses.

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