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Table 5

Descriptive Results Across Studies.

StudyConditionMean Characters (SD)Example

 
1a Unhappy 428.75 (189.55) I donated to a charity at the supermarket. It was a charity that had to do with helping feed children. I felt pressured into donating from the cashier. I donated because she kept pushing it and gave me a rude look. I eventually consented and donated a few dollars. I was unhappy, though, because I felt pressured into doing it and eventually found out the charity wasn’t very good. 
Happy 395.29 (133.83) I donated money to a charity that help dig wells in Africa and I was very pleased because they have explained how much was needed to build one well and I felt satisfied how much closer my donation contributed towards another. I felt happy because the guy who promoted the charity was very reputable and spent time himself in Africa and exposed himself to many diseases and I felt good donating to a reputable place. 
1b Recent 328.76 (131.88) I think about a few months ago I went to the grocery store to get groceries and they were doing a charity for St. Judes where you could donate a dollar after you’re done being ringed up. So I did and they gave me a little paper to sign and they put it up at the register on the wall along with other people who donated. 
Lifetime 410.64 (202.54) I was able to give money to a pet shelter. The shelter was able to keep going and did not have to be shut down. I was thrilled that I could help animals get a chance at a new home. The animals were available to interact with. I received stories about how the animals I interacted with turned out. They were all placed in happy homes. 
Low impact 352.24 (143.01) I signed up for a monthly donation for the Humane Society. Every month I would get a charge on my credit card that reminded me that I was donating, but I did not know what my donation personally did. I did not know what amount of money was spent on administrative costs and what amount was actually spent on charity, and I also did not know what that charity entailed. The money could have been better spent if I just donated it to a local organization or for one local animal, in my opinion. I stopped the monthly donation for this reason. 
High impact 381.93 (163.83) I spent money through our church group for missionaries serving in impoverished third world countries. We received pictures and information on how the beneficiaries of the donations were doing and it felt good that they were able to obtain food, clothing and shelter and were able to get an education. 
Low connection 350.06 (176.31) A time I spent money to help a cause and it did not make me feel a sense of social connection was when I was at the supermarket and the cashier asked me to make a donation for charity. It’s so easy to just say yes in this situation and doing so didn’t make me feel connected to the cause, in fact, I don’t even remember what the cause was. 
High connection 383.61 (191.14) I give a monthly amount to a young child in Ethiopia. It began about 2 years ago when I wanted to become involved with a charity in Africa. The child messages me every month and is extremely grateful for the relief we provide her. It’s incredibly rewarding as we can see her attending school and receiving immunizations. 
Low choice 330.17 (154.24) I completed a survey through Mturk, that gave me a five dollar bonus, and instructed me to pick one of two charities provided to give it to. I wasn’t allowed to keep it for myself, pick the charity I would actually donate to, and was forced into donating it to an organization I had never heard of. It was annoying that I didn’t know more about them, as they could have been a bad group to donate to. 
High choice 318.64 (164.19) I last spend money to help another person when a friend of mine didn’t have enough money to pay their rent so I covered the amount that they couldn’t pay for them. They have helped me out in the past so I felt that it was only right for me to help when they were in need. It was entirely my choice, and I made it because I care about this person. 
StudyConditionMean Characters (SD)Example

 
1a Unhappy 428.75 (189.55) I donated to a charity at the supermarket. It was a charity that had to do with helping feed children. I felt pressured into donating from the cashier. I donated because she kept pushing it and gave me a rude look. I eventually consented and donated a few dollars. I was unhappy, though, because I felt pressured into doing it and eventually found out the charity wasn’t very good. 
Happy 395.29 (133.83) I donated money to a charity that help dig wells in Africa and I was very pleased because they have explained how much was needed to build one well and I felt satisfied how much closer my donation contributed towards another. I felt happy because the guy who promoted the charity was very reputable and spent time himself in Africa and exposed himself to many diseases and I felt good donating to a reputable place. 
1b Recent 328.76 (131.88) I think about a few months ago I went to the grocery store to get groceries and they were doing a charity for St. Judes where you could donate a dollar after you’re done being ringed up. So I did and they gave me a little paper to sign and they put it up at the register on the wall along with other people who donated. 
Lifetime 410.64 (202.54) I was able to give money to a pet shelter. The shelter was able to keep going and did not have to be shut down. I was thrilled that I could help animals get a chance at a new home. The animals were available to interact with. I received stories about how the animals I interacted with turned out. They were all placed in happy homes. 
Low impact 352.24 (143.01) I signed up for a monthly donation for the Humane Society. Every month I would get a charge on my credit card that reminded me that I was donating, but I did not know what my donation personally did. I did not know what amount of money was spent on administrative costs and what amount was actually spent on charity, and I also did not know what that charity entailed. The money could have been better spent if I just donated it to a local organization or for one local animal, in my opinion. I stopped the monthly donation for this reason. 
High impact 381.93 (163.83) I spent money through our church group for missionaries serving in impoverished third world countries. We received pictures and information on how the beneficiaries of the donations were doing and it felt good that they were able to obtain food, clothing and shelter and were able to get an education. 
Low connection 350.06 (176.31) A time I spent money to help a cause and it did not make me feel a sense of social connection was when I was at the supermarket and the cashier asked me to make a donation for charity. It’s so easy to just say yes in this situation and doing so didn’t make me feel connected to the cause, in fact, I don’t even remember what the cause was. 
High connection 383.61 (191.14) I give a monthly amount to a young child in Ethiopia. It began about 2 years ago when I wanted to become involved with a charity in Africa. The child messages me every month and is extremely grateful for the relief we provide her. It’s incredibly rewarding as we can see her attending school and receiving immunizations. 
Low choice 330.17 (154.24) I completed a survey through Mturk, that gave me a five dollar bonus, and instructed me to pick one of two charities provided to give it to. I wasn’t allowed to keep it for myself, pick the charity I would actually donate to, and was forced into donating it to an organization I had never heard of. It was annoying that I didn’t know more about them, as they could have been a bad group to donate to. 
High choice 318.64 (164.19) I last spend money to help another person when a friend of mine didn’t have enough money to pay their rent so I covered the amount that they couldn’t pay for them. They have helped me out in the past so I felt that it was only right for me to help when they were in need. It was entirely my choice, and I made it because I care about this person. 
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