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Table 3

Example of policy interventions that could affect outcomes of intensification of agriculture in Brazil. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.187.t3

Policies discouraging intensification for sustainabilityPolicies favoring intensification for sustainability

 
The reduction of protected areas in the Amazon Designation of public lands for protected areas 
Impunity of land grabbing Private sector commitments to reduce deforestation (Soy moratorium and cattle agreement) 
Reduction of environmental enforcement capacity Economic incentives of the Forest Code 
Low value of land tax (Portuguese acronym ITR) Review of land tax system – ITR 
Rural credit without environmental or social safeguards Demand from financial sector for commitments against deforestation 
Lack of ecological-economic zoning Payment for environmental services 
Indicators of performance of agriculture based in production and productivity (tons and tons/ha) New indicators of performance of agriculture incorporating environmental and resource efficiency (ex.: tons/emission) 
Externalities not incorporated in production costs and price of final products in the value chain Externalities incorporated in production costs and price of final products in the value chain 
Research prioritizing monocropping and simplified production systems heavily dependent on energy Research on diversified and energy and resource efficient production systems 
Commoditization of food systems ABC (Low carbon agriculture) Plan 
WTO (World Trade Organization) policies which do not recognize quality of products and production systems Certification of sustainable land use and production 
Policies discouraging intensification for sustainabilityPolicies favoring intensification for sustainability

 
The reduction of protected areas in the Amazon Designation of public lands for protected areas 
Impunity of land grabbing Private sector commitments to reduce deforestation (Soy moratorium and cattle agreement) 
Reduction of environmental enforcement capacity Economic incentives of the Forest Code 
Low value of land tax (Portuguese acronym ITR) Review of land tax system – ITR 
Rural credit without environmental or social safeguards Demand from financial sector for commitments against deforestation 
Lack of ecological-economic zoning Payment for environmental services 
Indicators of performance of agriculture based in production and productivity (tons and tons/ha) New indicators of performance of agriculture incorporating environmental and resource efficiency (ex.: tons/emission) 
Externalities not incorporated in production costs and price of final products in the value chain Externalities incorporated in production costs and price of final products in the value chain 
Research prioritizing monocropping and simplified production systems heavily dependent on energy Research on diversified and energy and resource efficient production systems 
Commoditization of food systems ABC (Low carbon agriculture) Plan 
WTO (World Trade Organization) policies which do not recognize quality of products and production systems Certification of sustainable land use and production 
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