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Table 1.
Conceptual framework for learning about race, by race.
White Students (Helms, 1990)Students of Color (Cross & Vandiver, 2001)
1. Contact
Unaware of own race and little to no concept of racism 
1. Pre-encounter
Internalization of racist messages (personal significance unrealized) 
2. Disintegration
Aware of racism and uncomfortable with this topic 
2. Encounter
Coping mechanisms vary 
3. Reintegration
Victim blaming used to cope 
3. Immersion/emersion
Desire to be with members of own race and to learn more about African and African American experience 
4. Pseudo-independent
Pull between feeling that change must happen and confronting one's own discomfort 
4. Internalization
Reframe internalized messages with positive self-image of one's race 
5. Immersion/Emersion
Seek out white role models who typify “anti-racist” stance 
5. Commitment
Commitment to solving problems faced by one's race 
6. Autonomy
Comfort in multicultural settings, positive association with change 
 
White Students (Helms, 1990)Students of Color (Cross & Vandiver, 2001)
1. Contact
Unaware of own race and little to no concept of racism 
1. Pre-encounter
Internalization of racist messages (personal significance unrealized) 
2. Disintegration
Aware of racism and uncomfortable with this topic 
2. Encounter
Coping mechanisms vary 
3. Reintegration
Victim blaming used to cope 
3. Immersion/emersion
Desire to be with members of own race and to learn more about African and African American experience 
4. Pseudo-independent
Pull between feeling that change must happen and confronting one's own discomfort 
4. Internalization
Reframe internalized messages with positive self-image of one's race 
5. Immersion/Emersion
Seek out white role models who typify “anti-racist” stance 
5. Commitment
Commitment to solving problems faced by one's race 
6. Autonomy
Comfort in multicultural settings, positive association with change 
 
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