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Table 2

The Sen-Theil estimators for summertime mean of daytime average and DMA8 regional trends, p-values are derived from Mann-Kendall test (GAMM approach), along with the means (SDs) of all individual intercepts and slopes (Regional mean approach). The overall statistics include the TOAR unclassified category. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.243.t2

Summertime mean of daytime average
RegionGAMM approachRegional mean approach

Intercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)p-valueIntercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)

 
Eastern N America Overall 43.73 –0.30 <0.01 43.13(6.04) –0.30(0.29) 
 Rural 45.06 –0.42 <0.01 44.40(6.05) –0.42(0.24) 
 Urban 39.79 –0.10 0.01 39.15(6.19) –0.07(0.30) 

 
Europe Overall 38.56 –0.04 0.09 39.17(7.18) –0.08(0.33) 
 Rural 42.35 –0.17 <0.01 42.72(6.21) –0.21(0.30) 
 Urban 35.66 0.01 0.78 35.57(7.40) 0.05(0.31) 

 
E Asia Overall 35.78 0.40 <0.01 35.40(8.42) 0.41(0.56) 
 Rural 40.42 0.23 <0.01 39.95(5.67) 0.22(0.62) 
 Urban 34.05 0.51 <0.01 33.74(9.35) 0.52(0.51) 
Summertime mean of DMA8
 
Region  GAMM approach Regional mean approach 

 
Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) p-value Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) 

 
Eastern N America Overall 50.15 –0.43 <0.01 49.37(6.63) –0.43(0.30) 
 Rural 50.85 –0.52 <0.01 50.10(6.66) –0.52(0.26) 
 Urban 46.57 –0.25 <0.01 45.79(6.99) –0.21(0.33) 

 
Europe Overall 43.87 –0.08 <0.01 44.63(7.34) –0.14(0.34) 
 Rural 47.14 –0.21 <0.01 47.51(6.29) –0.25(0.31) 
 Urban 41.17 –0.05 0.13 41.25(7.92) –0.03(0.32) 

 
E Asia Overall 43.72 0.37 <0.01 43.38(9.50) 0.37(0.66) 
 Rural 46.83 0.23 <0.01 46.25(6.01) 0.20(0.66) 
 Urban 42.37 0.48 <0.01 42.11(10.81) 0.49(0.63) 
Summertime mean of daytime average
RegionGAMM approachRegional mean approach

Intercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)p-valueIntercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)

 
Eastern N America Overall 43.73 –0.30 <0.01 43.13(6.04) –0.30(0.29) 
 Rural 45.06 –0.42 <0.01 44.40(6.05) –0.42(0.24) 
 Urban 39.79 –0.10 0.01 39.15(6.19) –0.07(0.30) 

 
Europe Overall 38.56 –0.04 0.09 39.17(7.18) –0.08(0.33) 
 Rural 42.35 –0.17 <0.01 42.72(6.21) –0.21(0.30) 
 Urban 35.66 0.01 0.78 35.57(7.40) 0.05(0.31) 

 
E Asia Overall 35.78 0.40 <0.01 35.40(8.42) 0.41(0.56) 
 Rural 40.42 0.23 <0.01 39.95(5.67) 0.22(0.62) 
 Urban 34.05 0.51 <0.01 33.74(9.35) 0.52(0.51) 
Summertime mean of DMA8
 
Region  GAMM approach Regional mean approach 

 
Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) p-value Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) 

 
Eastern N America Overall 50.15 –0.43 <0.01 49.37(6.63) –0.43(0.30) 
 Rural 50.85 –0.52 <0.01 50.10(6.66) –0.52(0.26) 
 Urban 46.57 –0.25 <0.01 45.79(6.99) –0.21(0.33) 

 
Europe Overall 43.87 –0.08 <0.01 44.63(7.34) –0.14(0.34) 
 Rural 47.14 –0.21 <0.01 47.51(6.29) –0.25(0.31) 
 Urban 41.17 –0.05 0.13 41.25(7.92) –0.03(0.32) 

 
E Asia Overall 43.72 0.37 <0.01 43.38(9.50) 0.37(0.66) 
 Rural 46.83 0.23 <0.01 46.25(6.01) 0.20(0.66) 
 Urban 42.37 0.48 <0.01 42.11(10.81) 0.49(0.63) 
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