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Table 1

The Sen-Theil estimators (with 95% confidence interval for the slope) for the regional trends from monthly mean of daytime average and DMA8, p-values are derived from Mann-Kendall tests. The overall statistics include the TOAR unclassified category (monthly mean in different regions). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.243.t1

Monthly mean of daytime average
RegionIntercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)Lower CI (ppb yr–1)Higher CI (ppb yr–1)p-value

 
Eastern N America Overall 43.72 –0.28 –0.30 –0.26 <0.01 
 Rural 37.27 –0.46 –0.48 –0.43 <0.01 
 Urban 35.67 –0.09 –0.10 –0.06 0.16 

 
Europe Overall 37.31 –0.06 –0.07 –0.05 0.01 
 Rural 39.39 –0.17 –0.17 –0.15 <0.01 
 Urban 38.79 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.19 

 
E Asia Overall 40.91 0.45 0.43 0.46 <0.01 
 Rural 44.00 0.21 0.19 0.22 <0.01 
 Urban 36.42 0.45 0.42 0.48 <0.01 

 
SE Asia Overall 26.67 0.20 0.20 0.20 <0.01 
Monthly mean of DMA8
 
Region  Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) Lower CI (ppb yr–1) Higher CI (ppb yr–1) p-value 

 
Eastern N America Overall 65.31 –0.81 –0.85 –0.79 <0.01 
 Rural 55.74 –0.96 –1.01 –0.91 <0.01 
 Urban 58.03 –0.69 –0.73 –0.65 <0.01 

 
Europe Overall 55.40 –0.30 –0.32 –0.28 <0.01 
 Rural 53.47 –0.39 –0.41 –0.36 <0.01 
 Urban 54.81 –0.13 –0.15 –0.12 0.01 

 
E Asia Overall 69.13 0.35 0.32 0.37 <0.01 
 Rural 60.11 0.14 0.12 0.16 <0.01 
 Urban 62.05 0.30 0.24 0.37 0.02 

 
SE Asia Overall 41.19 0.45 0.45 0.45 <0.01 
Monthly mean of daytime average
RegionIntercept (ppb)Slope (ppb yr–1)Lower CI (ppb yr–1)Higher CI (ppb yr–1)p-value

 
Eastern N America Overall 43.72 –0.28 –0.30 –0.26 <0.01 
 Rural 37.27 –0.46 –0.48 –0.43 <0.01 
 Urban 35.67 –0.09 –0.10 –0.06 0.16 

 
Europe Overall 37.31 –0.06 –0.07 –0.05 0.01 
 Rural 39.39 –0.17 –0.17 –0.15 <0.01 
 Urban 38.79 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.19 

 
E Asia Overall 40.91 0.45 0.43 0.46 <0.01 
 Rural 44.00 0.21 0.19 0.22 <0.01 
 Urban 36.42 0.45 0.42 0.48 <0.01 

 
SE Asia Overall 26.67 0.20 0.20 0.20 <0.01 
Monthly mean of DMA8
 
Region  Intercept (ppb) Slope (ppb yr–1) Lower CI (ppb yr–1) Higher CI (ppb yr–1) p-value 

 
Eastern N America Overall 65.31 –0.81 –0.85 –0.79 <0.01 
 Rural 55.74 –0.96 –1.01 –0.91 <0.01 
 Urban 58.03 –0.69 –0.73 –0.65 <0.01 

 
Europe Overall 55.40 –0.30 –0.32 –0.28 <0.01 
 Rural 53.47 –0.39 –0.41 –0.36 <0.01 
 Urban 54.81 –0.13 –0.15 –0.12 0.01 

 
E Asia Overall 69.13 0.35 0.32 0.37 <0.01 
 Rural 60.11 0.14 0.12 0.16 <0.01 
 Urban 62.05 0.30 0.24 0.37 0.02 

 
SE Asia Overall 41.19 0.45 0.45 0.45 <0.01 
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