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Table 1

Methodological components of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.147.t1

ComponentMeasurements/Instruments/ModelsDescription/PurposeData/StatusData archive/References

 
Aircraft mass balance flights Airborne Laboratory for Atmospherc Research (ALAR); Meteorological variables,1 continuous CO2, CH4, H2O and CO, flask samples.2 Measure GHG mass balance across the city. Evaluate simulations of atmospheric GHGs. 54 mass balance flights, 10 grid flights; February, 2008 – December, 2016.
350 flasks from 48 flights/Ongoing. 
Shepson et al., 2017/Mays et al., 2009; Cambaliza et al., 2014, 2015; Heimburger et al, 2017. 
Automobile surveys Continuous CO2, CH4 and CO, flask samples.2 Surveys to identify strong point sources. Point source estimation via dispersion models.
Evaluation of multi-species and isotope ratios from specific source sectors. 
500 kilometers of road data, 2012–2014.
Completed.
Source sector surveys, 2015./
Completed. 
No public archive/Cambaliza et al., 2015; Lamb et al., 2016; Vimont et al., 2017. 
Tower-based GHG and atmospheric tracer network Continuous CO2, CH4 and CO, flask samples.2 Quantify urban GHG enhancement. Tower-based inverse flux estimates. 2 to 12 tower sites, continuous operation. 1,600 flasks from 375 unique dates and 7 towers./December, 2010 – October, 2016.
Ongoing. 
Miles et al., 2017b/Turnbull et al., 2012, 2015; Richardson et al., 2017; Miles et al., 2017a. 
Meteorological measurements Eddy covariance and radiative fluxes3 Atmospheric state measurements. Atmospheric transport model assimilation and evaluation. 4 towers with eddy covariance, 2 with radiative fluxes; 2013 to present./Ongoing. Sarmiento et al., 2017b/Sarmiento et al., 2017a. 
Doppler lidar4 One site, continuous, 2013 to present./Ongoing. Brewer, 2017  
Research aircraft1 See aircraft mass balance flights, above. See aircraft mass balance flights. 
Surface weather stations 20–24 sites, continuous./Ongoing. MADIS, 2017/Sarmiento et al., 2017a; Deng et al, 2017  
Commercial aircraft5 Indianapolis International airport, approx. 15 flights per day, continuous./Ongoing. MADIS, 2017/Moninger et al, 2003  
Column carbon observations Continuous column CO2, CH4, CO. Comparison to tower GHG network; urban GHG flux estimation. TCCON: August – December, 2012. Completed. EM27 network, May, 2016. Completed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2017  
Atmospheric transport modeling Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) with Chemistry (Chem) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) options. Simulation of atmospheric transport of GHGs; meteorological data assimilation; turbulence-resolving simulations Continuous nested simulation from September, 2012 – October, 2015.
Physics ensemble simulation for a winter month (15 February – 20 March, 2013) and a summer month (15 June – 20 July, 2013).
WRF-LES simulation of 28 September, 2013. 
Sarmiento et al. 2017c./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Deng et al, 2017; Sarmiento et al, 2017; Gaudet et al, personal communication. 
Atmospheric inversion system Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM);
Bayesian matrix inversion 
Receptor – source attribution; Flux estimation integrating atmospheric transport, prior flux estimates, and atmospheric GHG observations LPDM influence functions from September, 2012 – October, 2015. No public archive./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Deng et al, 2017; Wu et al, personal communication. 
GHG flux estimates Mesoscale atmospheric inversion Whole city and spatially resolved GHG flux estimation Tower-based flux estimates for CO2 and CH4; September, 2012 – April, 2013.
Ongoing. 
No public archive./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Lamb et al., 2016. 
Atmospheric mass balance Whole city GHG flux estimation 68 flights including mass-balance, grid and eddy covariance, 2009 – 2016./Ongoing. Documented in publications./Mays et al., 2009; Cambaliza et al., 2014, 2015; Heimburger et al, 2017. 
Eddy covariance Local area (~ 1 km2), continuous flux measurement CO2 fluxes at 4 towers, 2013 – early 2016./Ongoing. Sarmiento et al., 2017b. 
Plume inversion; Enclosures. Point source GHG flux estimates Survey in 2013. No public archive./Lamb et al., 2016. 
Emissions inventories/data products Activity data, fuel statistics, stack monitoring, model algorithm, emission factors “Bottom-up” estimate of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the city. Anthropogenic CO2: 2002, 2010–2014.
Ongoing.
Total urban CH4: Single assessment.
Completed. 
No public archive./Gurney et al., 2012; Lamb et al., 2016. 
ComponentMeasurements/Instruments/ModelsDescription/PurposeData/StatusData archive/References

 
Aircraft mass balance flights Airborne Laboratory for Atmospherc Research (ALAR); Meteorological variables,1 continuous CO2, CH4, H2O and CO, flask samples.2 Measure GHG mass balance across the city. Evaluate simulations of atmospheric GHGs. 54 mass balance flights, 10 grid flights; February, 2008 – December, 2016.
350 flasks from 48 flights/Ongoing. 
Shepson et al., 2017/Mays et al., 2009; Cambaliza et al., 2014, 2015; Heimburger et al, 2017. 
Automobile surveys Continuous CO2, CH4 and CO, flask samples.2 Surveys to identify strong point sources. Point source estimation via dispersion models.
Evaluation of multi-species and isotope ratios from specific source sectors. 
500 kilometers of road data, 2012–2014.
Completed.
Source sector surveys, 2015./
Completed. 
No public archive/Cambaliza et al., 2015; Lamb et al., 2016; Vimont et al., 2017. 
Tower-based GHG and atmospheric tracer network Continuous CO2, CH4 and CO, flask samples.2 Quantify urban GHG enhancement. Tower-based inverse flux estimates. 2 to 12 tower sites, continuous operation. 1,600 flasks from 375 unique dates and 7 towers./December, 2010 – October, 2016.
Ongoing. 
Miles et al., 2017b/Turnbull et al., 2012, 2015; Richardson et al., 2017; Miles et al., 2017a. 
Meteorological measurements Eddy covariance and radiative fluxes3 Atmospheric state measurements. Atmospheric transport model assimilation and evaluation. 4 towers with eddy covariance, 2 with radiative fluxes; 2013 to present./Ongoing. Sarmiento et al., 2017b/Sarmiento et al., 2017a. 
Doppler lidar4 One site, continuous, 2013 to present./Ongoing. Brewer, 2017  
Research aircraft1 See aircraft mass balance flights, above. See aircraft mass balance flights. 
Surface weather stations 20–24 sites, continuous./Ongoing. MADIS, 2017/Sarmiento et al., 2017a; Deng et al, 2017  
Commercial aircraft5 Indianapolis International airport, approx. 15 flights per day, continuous./Ongoing. MADIS, 2017/Moninger et al, 2003  
Column carbon observations Continuous column CO2, CH4, CO. Comparison to tower GHG network; urban GHG flux estimation. TCCON: August – December, 2012. Completed. EM27 network, May, 2016. Completed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2017  
Atmospheric transport modeling Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) with Chemistry (Chem) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) options. Simulation of atmospheric transport of GHGs; meteorological data assimilation; turbulence-resolving simulations Continuous nested simulation from September, 2012 – October, 2015.
Physics ensemble simulation for a winter month (15 February – 20 March, 2013) and a summer month (15 June – 20 July, 2013).
WRF-LES simulation of 28 September, 2013. 
Sarmiento et al. 2017c./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Deng et al, 2017; Sarmiento et al, 2017; Gaudet et al, personal communication. 
Atmospheric inversion system Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM);
Bayesian matrix inversion 
Receptor – source attribution; Flux estimation integrating atmospheric transport, prior flux estimates, and atmospheric GHG observations LPDM influence functions from September, 2012 – October, 2015. No public archive./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Deng et al, 2017; Wu et al, personal communication. 
GHG flux estimates Mesoscale atmospheric inversion Whole city and spatially resolved GHG flux estimation Tower-based flux estimates for CO2 and CH4; September, 2012 – April, 2013.
Ongoing. 
No public archive./Lauvaux et al., 2016; Lamb et al., 2016. 
Atmospheric mass balance Whole city GHG flux estimation 68 flights including mass-balance, grid and eddy covariance, 2009 – 2016./Ongoing. Documented in publications./Mays et al., 2009; Cambaliza et al., 2014, 2015; Heimburger et al, 2017. 
Eddy covariance Local area (~ 1 km2), continuous flux measurement CO2 fluxes at 4 towers, 2013 – early 2016./Ongoing. Sarmiento et al., 2017b. 
Plume inversion; Enclosures. Point source GHG flux estimates Survey in 2013. No public archive./Lamb et al., 2016. 
Emissions inventories/data products Activity data, fuel statistics, stack monitoring, model algorithm, emission factors “Bottom-up” estimate of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the city. Anthropogenic CO2: 2002, 2010–2014.
Ongoing.
Total urban CH4: Single assessment.
Completed. 
No public archive./Gurney et al., 2012; Lamb et al., 2016. 

1 Three dimensional winds, temperature, and pressure at 50 Hz.

2 50 trace gases including CO2, CH4 and 14CO2. Complete documentation provided by Turnbull et al., (2012).

3 Terrestrial and solar, upwelling and downwelling hemispheric radiation, turbulent fluxes of virtual temperature, momentum, water vapor and CO2.

4 Mean horizontal winds, turbulent velocity along-beam, aerosol backscatter, ABL depth, turbulent kinetic energy.

5 Horizontal winds, temperature, pressure at 1 to 30 second resolution.

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