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Table 1

Comparisons between conventional and telecoupling frameworks, and examples of new conservation actions from applying the telecoupling framework. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.184.t1

ComponentsConventional Framework of Studying Migratory SpeciesTelecoupling FrameworkNew conservation actions from applying the telecoupling frameworka

 
Systems
Features 
Natural systems (e.g., migratory species) Coupled human and natural systems Systematically incorporate humans into conservation among distant places; minimize human impacts on natural systems, and enhance benefits of natural systems to humans across distant places. 
Types Breeding, wintering, stopover sites Breeding, wintering, stopover sites, and other places affecting migratory species directly and indirectly Manage other places that can affect the species; and coordinate the management across all relevant places. 
Agents Focal species, biologists and wildlife managers, landowners,investors, scientific institutions, and governments Focal species, biologists and wildlife managers, landowners,investors, scientific institutions, and governments; other agents affecting flows of information,material and people (e.g., traders, consumers, industry, business communities) Engage all agents and facilitate cooperation among all types of agents across distant places. 
Flows Environmental connections through flows of nutrients, energy, and species Environmental and socioeconomic connections through flows of nutrients, energy, species, information, and materials Regulate flows of species, information, materials, and people across distant places; control the interactions among flows of focal species and other types of flows across distant places for focal species (e.g., generate funding and reduce predatory mortality). 
Causes Environmental factors Environmental factors, socioeconomic factors Create and use socioeconomic incentives and disincentives such as social norms for people to conserve migratory species across distant places. 
Effects Effects on species (population, habitat) Effects on species (population, habitat) and people Reduce trade-offs and enhance synergies between environmental and socioeconomic effects across distant places. 
Environmental feedbacks among distant places Environmental and socioeconomic feedbacks among distant places Steer socioeconomic feedbacks and the interplays between socioeconomic and environmental feedbacks across all distant places. 
ComponentsConventional Framework of Studying Migratory SpeciesTelecoupling FrameworkNew conservation actions from applying the telecoupling frameworka

 
Systems
Features 
Natural systems (e.g., migratory species) Coupled human and natural systems Systematically incorporate humans into conservation among distant places; minimize human impacts on natural systems, and enhance benefits of natural systems to humans across distant places. 
Types Breeding, wintering, stopover sites Breeding, wintering, stopover sites, and other places affecting migratory species directly and indirectly Manage other places that can affect the species; and coordinate the management across all relevant places. 
Agents Focal species, biologists and wildlife managers, landowners,investors, scientific institutions, and governments Focal species, biologists and wildlife managers, landowners,investors, scientific institutions, and governments; other agents affecting flows of information,material and people (e.g., traders, consumers, industry, business communities) Engage all agents and facilitate cooperation among all types of agents across distant places. 
Flows Environmental connections through flows of nutrients, energy, and species Environmental and socioeconomic connections through flows of nutrients, energy, species, information, and materials Regulate flows of species, information, materials, and people across distant places; control the interactions among flows of focal species and other types of flows across distant places for focal species (e.g., generate funding and reduce predatory mortality). 
Causes Environmental factors Environmental factors, socioeconomic factors Create and use socioeconomic incentives and disincentives such as social norms for people to conserve migratory species across distant places. 
Effects Effects on species (population, habitat) Effects on species (population, habitat) and people Reduce trade-offs and enhance synergies between environmental and socioeconomic effects across distant places. 
Environmental feedbacks among distant places Environmental and socioeconomic feedbacks among distant places Steer socioeconomic feedbacks and the interplays between socioeconomic and environmental feedbacks across all distant places. 

aFor the sake of simplicity, traditional strategies (e.g., management in breeding and wintering sites) are not included in the table, but are still needed in conservation.

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