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Table 1.
Bloom's taxonomy (Bloom et al., 1956, 1971) questions and suggested activities to be done in class or as homework.
Student LevelStudents’ BackgroundSuggested MethodsQuestions/Follow-up Activities
Elementary/middle school No experience with heart development In-class model building with teacher demonstration.
Emphasize compare-and-contrast between normal and congenital-disease heart models. 
Ask students: Where is the defect located? Allow students to explore HHMI cardiology lab and building heart valves (Hudson, 2014).
Progress to questions such as: What if there is an obstruction? What would happen to cardiac muscle cells along the right ventricle? 
High school/AP Biology Some biology background; little physiology background Include mix of low- and high-level Bloom questions; integrate HHMI cardiology lab with hands-on activities (see Hudson, 2014, and activities presented in this article). Have students investigate and search PubMed for genetic mutants with pulmonary artery and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. 
Undergraduate biology/developmental biology/physiology course Some developmental and physiology background Use “flipped classroom” strategy: have students build their own models prior to class; in class, ask them to think–pair–share what genetic mutants were involved. How would cardiac injury affect epicardial cells compared to cardiac muscle cells?
Selected primary literature found via PubMed may also be included for instruction (e.g., Figure Facts, Jigsaw, and Gallery Walk). 
How can we test whether the gene of interest is involved in cardiac muscle cell development?
What cellular and molecular interventions can relieve the roadblock in the pulmonary artery? 
Student LevelStudents’ BackgroundSuggested MethodsQuestions/Follow-up Activities
Elementary/middle school No experience with heart development In-class model building with teacher demonstration.
Emphasize compare-and-contrast between normal and congenital-disease heart models. 
Ask students: Where is the defect located? Allow students to explore HHMI cardiology lab and building heart valves (Hudson, 2014).
Progress to questions such as: What if there is an obstruction? What would happen to cardiac muscle cells along the right ventricle? 
High school/AP Biology Some biology background; little physiology background Include mix of low- and high-level Bloom questions; integrate HHMI cardiology lab with hands-on activities (see Hudson, 2014, and activities presented in this article). Have students investigate and search PubMed for genetic mutants with pulmonary artery and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. 
Undergraduate biology/developmental biology/physiology course Some developmental and physiology background Use “flipped classroom” strategy: have students build their own models prior to class; in class, ask them to think–pair–share what genetic mutants were involved. How would cardiac injury affect epicardial cells compared to cardiac muscle cells?
Selected primary literature found via PubMed may also be included for instruction (e.g., Figure Facts, Jigsaw, and Gallery Walk). 
How can we test whether the gene of interest is involved in cardiac muscle cell development?
What cellular and molecular interventions can relieve the roadblock in the pulmonary artery? 
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