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Table 2.
Lesson plan for utilizing PMEDs to support students’ evolutionary thinking (modified from Zimmerman & Land, 2014).
Guideline 1 Facilitate participation in disciplinary conversations. 
Concept Places have histories and meanings, written both by humans and by nature. 
Objective Develop the socio-ecological narrative that already exists at a place by highlighting the historical, geographical, geological, and ecological stories of that place. 
Implementation Develop a list of questions to stimulate deep thinking about place (e.g., What is this place? What are its values? How do your life experiences influence your description and valuation of this place?). Lead students in a socio-ecological discussion to really explore places and the concepts people attribute to them. 
Guideline 2 Amplify observations to see disciplinarily relevant aspects of place. 
Concept Biological diversity is evident in our common experience. 
Objective (1) Make observations of organisms to inform future class projects. (2) Demonstrate the diversity of organisms by capturing images of as many different organisms as possible for later analysis. Attempt to capture organisms from each major phylum discussed in class. 
Implementation Develop “handouts” delivered electronically with directions, expectations, and safety precautions; we provided a scavenger-hunt-type list of eukaryotic kingdoms and major phyla to look for; include directions for saving electronic data for later use. 
Guideline 3 Extend experiences through exploration of data and representations of the place. 
Concept If we make careful observations and critically analyze those observations, then patterns and relationships in nature will be revealed to us. 
Objective (1) Analyze data for the best images of each “type” of organism. (2) Construct a phylogenetic tree (i.e., an evolutionary hypothesis) based on the similarities and differences of types. (3) Represent this as a captioned figure in PowerPoint. (4) Note any particularly interesting observations you made. 
Implementation Upon returning from the field, students use ICTs to construct phylogenetic hypotheses for the organisms “collected.” Both formative and summative assessments can be used during or afterward. Appropriate scaffolding and ICT troubleshooting are required on the part of the instructor. 
Guideline 1 Facilitate participation in disciplinary conversations. 
Concept Places have histories and meanings, written both by humans and by nature. 
Objective Develop the socio-ecological narrative that already exists at a place by highlighting the historical, geographical, geological, and ecological stories of that place. 
Implementation Develop a list of questions to stimulate deep thinking about place (e.g., What is this place? What are its values? How do your life experiences influence your description and valuation of this place?). Lead students in a socio-ecological discussion to really explore places and the concepts people attribute to them. 
Guideline 2 Amplify observations to see disciplinarily relevant aspects of place. 
Concept Biological diversity is evident in our common experience. 
Objective (1) Make observations of organisms to inform future class projects. (2) Demonstrate the diversity of organisms by capturing images of as many different organisms as possible for later analysis. Attempt to capture organisms from each major phylum discussed in class. 
Implementation Develop “handouts” delivered electronically with directions, expectations, and safety precautions; we provided a scavenger-hunt-type list of eukaryotic kingdoms and major phyla to look for; include directions for saving electronic data for later use. 
Guideline 3 Extend experiences through exploration of data and representations of the place. 
Concept If we make careful observations and critically analyze those observations, then patterns and relationships in nature will be revealed to us. 
Objective (1) Analyze data for the best images of each “type” of organism. (2) Construct a phylogenetic tree (i.e., an evolutionary hypothesis) based on the similarities and differences of types. (3) Represent this as a captioned figure in PowerPoint. (4) Note any particularly interesting observations you made. 
Implementation Upon returning from the field, students use ICTs to construct phylogenetic hypotheses for the organisms “collected.” Both formative and summative assessments can be used during or afterward. Appropriate scaffolding and ICT troubleshooting are required on the part of the instructor. 
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