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Table 1.
Examples of information and communication technologies used in science education from the research literature.
ApplicationDescriptionRole of the StudentRole of the InstructorReference
Animated pedagogical agents APAs provide unlimited access to virtual scientist-mentors to assist in student learning Learner in a small group setting, assessed formatively Low participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; observes interactions and intervenes as necessary Bowman (2012)  
Digital pen-and-paper technology Commercially available program for collecting and synchronizing written and audio information allows instructors to analyze the learning process Learner as an individual, assessed formatively Medium participation; instructor acts as reviewer, subject expert; may review notes or activities resulting from technology Linenberger & Bretz (2012)  
Mash-up tools Use of two or more online data sets or applications to develop new applications, data sets, or questions Principal investigator, colleague, learner assessed formatively High participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; may be involved in the development of new applications or data sets Crippen & Archambault (2012)  
Outdoor mobile computing Using portable electronic devices to engage students in place-based, content-driven educational opportunities Principal investigator, colleague, learner assessed formatively High participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; provides detailed guidance and frequent scaffolding Zimmerman & Land (2014)  
Science-based video games Use of games in multiple electronic formats to engage students in content-driven educational opportunities Learner as an individual or group member, assessed both formatively and summatively Low participation; instructor acts as evaluator, subject expert; technology is likely engaged outside of school, precluding instructor facilitation or feedback Muehrer et al. (2012)  
ApplicationDescriptionRole of the StudentRole of the InstructorReference
Animated pedagogical agents APAs provide unlimited access to virtual scientist-mentors to assist in student learning Learner in a small group setting, assessed formatively Low participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; observes interactions and intervenes as necessary Bowman (2012)  
Digital pen-and-paper technology Commercially available program for collecting and synchronizing written and audio information allows instructors to analyze the learning process Learner as an individual, assessed formatively Medium participation; instructor acts as reviewer, subject expert; may review notes or activities resulting from technology Linenberger & Bretz (2012)  
Mash-up tools Use of two or more online data sets or applications to develop new applications, data sets, or questions Principal investigator, colleague, learner assessed formatively High participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; may be involved in the development of new applications or data sets Crippen & Archambault (2012)  
Outdoor mobile computing Using portable electronic devices to engage students in place-based, content-driven educational opportunities Principal investigator, colleague, learner assessed formatively High participation; instructor acts as facilitator, mentor, subject expert; provides detailed guidance and frequent scaffolding Zimmerman & Land (2014)  
Science-based video games Use of games in multiple electronic formats to engage students in content-driven educational opportunities Learner as an individual or group member, assessed both formatively and summatively Low participation; instructor acts as evaluator, subject expert; technology is likely engaged outside of school, precluding instructor facilitation or feedback Muehrer et al. (2012)  
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