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Table 2.

Viral starter kit.

Virus-infected Cell 
graphic
 
A viral pathogen is represented by a virus-infected cell, which contains many individual viruses; if it ruptures, it will spread those viruses to healthy cells and infect them. The infected cells bear antigens that identify the cell to the immune system as “nonself,” but the immune system still needs to be activated in the lymph nodes by an antigen-presenting cell (the phagocytic dendritic cell). 
White Blood Cells 
graphic
 
Dendritic Cells are part of the innate immune system. They are phagocytic cells that behave a lot like the macrophages in the bacterial immune response, in that they detect and consume pathogens, travel to the lymph nodes, and present the pathogen’s antigens. The physical interaction between the antigens the dendritic cell is presenting, inactive TH and TC cells, and the cytokines the dendritic cell produces activate the TH and TC cells. 
graphic
 
Cytotoxic T cells (TC) are part of the adaptive immune system. They are primarily responsible for binding to and destroying virus-infected cells. TC cells are activated and begin proliferating after physical interaction with antigen-presenting dendritic cell and dendritic cell cytokines. They are also activated by TH cells. When TC cells proliferate and produce cytokines, they will also activate TH cells. 
graphic
 
Helper T cells (TH) are part of the adaptive immune system. Once activated, TH cells will use their own cytokines to activate B cells and more TC cells. 
graphic
 
B cells are part of the adaptive immune system. They make antibodies and memory cells. After B cells are activated by TH cytokines, it takes 14 days for them to produce antibodies that will specifically target the virus-infected cell. B cells can’t act until a dendritic cell has consumed one of the virus-infected cells and a TH cell has been activated. 
graphic
 
Antibodies are proteins that interfere with cellular function and label virus-infected cells for destruction by TC cells. 
Virus-infected Cell 
graphic
 
A viral pathogen is represented by a virus-infected cell, which contains many individual viruses; if it ruptures, it will spread those viruses to healthy cells and infect them. The infected cells bear antigens that identify the cell to the immune system as “nonself,” but the immune system still needs to be activated in the lymph nodes by an antigen-presenting cell (the phagocytic dendritic cell). 
White Blood Cells 
graphic
 
Dendritic Cells are part of the innate immune system. They are phagocytic cells that behave a lot like the macrophages in the bacterial immune response, in that they detect and consume pathogens, travel to the lymph nodes, and present the pathogen’s antigens. The physical interaction between the antigens the dendritic cell is presenting, inactive TH and TC cells, and the cytokines the dendritic cell produces activate the TH and TC cells. 
graphic
 
Cytotoxic T cells (TC) are part of the adaptive immune system. They are primarily responsible for binding to and destroying virus-infected cells. TC cells are activated and begin proliferating after physical interaction with antigen-presenting dendritic cell and dendritic cell cytokines. They are also activated by TH cells. When TC cells proliferate and produce cytokines, they will also activate TH cells. 
graphic
 
Helper T cells (TH) are part of the adaptive immune system. Once activated, TH cells will use their own cytokines to activate B cells and more TC cells. 
graphic
 
B cells are part of the adaptive immune system. They make antibodies and memory cells. After B cells are activated by TH cytokines, it takes 14 days for them to produce antibodies that will specifically target the virus-infected cell. B cells can’t act until a dendritic cell has consumed one of the virus-infected cells and a TH cell has been activated. 
graphic
 
Antibodies are proteins that interfere with cellular function and label virus-infected cells for destruction by TC cells. 
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