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Table 1.

Generating discussion.

ConceptStrategiesRationale
Make a Public Document Use a chart on the chalkboard, overhead, or dry-erase board.
Use student drawings.
Have a student lead the discussion by creating a chart on the board.
Have each student write their individual ideas on the board. 
Keeping track of student responses with a public document encourages listening and reflection. 
Think/Pair/Share Provide students with the questions that you will use in the larger discussion as guidelines for their small-group discussion. Helps the individual student before they have to talk in a group. Students practice on a partner/in a group before addressing the class. 
Prereading/Activity Brainstorming Connect this to the public document made: Why are we doing this?
What do you think is going to happen when…?
What do you think it means to…?
Do you know anyone that…? 
Helps the students start to think about what they will be learning and helps them access their prior knowledge and understanding of a topic. Relates the activity/reading to the student. 
Follow-up Questions What have you observed or experienced?
What else is on your group's list?
What do you/other people think about when they hear the word _____________?
Who has a different idea/response/way of thinking about this?
What do you know about [topic X]? 
Follow-up questions help push the students’ understanding; they are meant to help them consider deeply why they think they know something. Such questions connect to the public document and the driving question. 
Student Interactions It is important for students to learn how to communicate in science (vocabulary and behaviors). Student-centered:
Encourage STUDENT discussion and initiation of questions and follow-up questions. Try to GUIDE the discussion rather than lead it.
Addressing other students: Encourage students to address each other and ask each other questions. Ask students to consider a previous response while formulating their own. 
ConceptStrategiesRationale
Make a Public Document Use a chart on the chalkboard, overhead, or dry-erase board.
Use student drawings.
Have a student lead the discussion by creating a chart on the board.
Have each student write their individual ideas on the board. 
Keeping track of student responses with a public document encourages listening and reflection. 
Think/Pair/Share Provide students with the questions that you will use in the larger discussion as guidelines for their small-group discussion. Helps the individual student before they have to talk in a group. Students practice on a partner/in a group before addressing the class. 
Prereading/Activity Brainstorming Connect this to the public document made: Why are we doing this?
What do you think is going to happen when…?
What do you think it means to…?
Do you know anyone that…? 
Helps the students start to think about what they will be learning and helps them access their prior knowledge and understanding of a topic. Relates the activity/reading to the student. 
Follow-up Questions What have you observed or experienced?
What else is on your group's list?
What do you/other people think about when they hear the word _____________?
Who has a different idea/response/way of thinking about this?
What do you know about [topic X]? 
Follow-up questions help push the students’ understanding; they are meant to help them consider deeply why they think they know something. Such questions connect to the public document and the driving question. 
Student Interactions It is important for students to learn how to communicate in science (vocabulary and behaviors). Student-centered:
Encourage STUDENT discussion and initiation of questions and follow-up questions. Try to GUIDE the discussion rather than lead it.
Addressing other students: Encourage students to address each other and ask each other questions. Ask students to consider a previous response while formulating their own. 
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