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Table 2.

Difference of means for matched-pairs responses. All reported confidence levels are averages of student responses using a five-point Likert scale (see text).

Items (I am confident in my ability to…)General Science ConfidenceEvolution ConfidenceDifference of Means
Think critically about scientific findings I read about in the media 3.13 2.64 0.48* 
Determine what is – and what is not – valid scientific evidence 3.04 2.64 0.40* 
Make an argument using scientific evidence 2.94 2.64 0.28* 
Pose questions that can be addressed by collecting and evaluating scientific evidence 3.19 2.64 0.55* 
Interpret tables and graphs 3.68 2.64 1.04* 
Understand scientific processes behind important scientific issues in the media 2.99 2.64 0.34* 
Understand the science content of this course 3.26 2.64 0.61* 
Items (I am confident in my ability to…)General Science ConfidenceEvolution ConfidenceDifference of Means
Think critically about scientific findings I read about in the media 3.13 2.64 0.48* 
Determine what is – and what is not – valid scientific evidence 3.04 2.64 0.40* 
Make an argument using scientific evidence 2.94 2.64 0.28* 
Pose questions that can be addressed by collecting and evaluating scientific evidence 3.19 2.64 0.55* 
Interpret tables and graphs 3.68 2.64 1.04* 
Understand scientific processes behind important scientific issues in the media 2.99 2.64 0.34* 
Understand the science content of this course 3.26 2.64 0.61* 

Notes: All differences of means are statistically significant (*) at P < 0.001. Sample sizes for each matched pair are between 213 and 215. For difference of means, all metrics are compared with students’ confidence in their ability to understand evolution, which averaged between 2.64 and 2.66 for each matched pair. For example, in the first row, 3.13 – 2.65 = 0.48, which is significantly different in a matched-pairs analysis.

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