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Table 3.

Chi-square observed, expected, and calculated values used to compare food preferences between northern cardinals and blue jays.

SunflowerThistleMilletSuetTotal
Observed Values      
Northern cardinal 185 14 216 
Blue jay 125 15 11 96 247 
Total 310 23 25 105 463 
Expected Values      
Northern cardinal 144.6 10.7 11.7 49.0  
Blue jay 165.4 12.3 13.3 56.0  
Calculated Values      
Northern cardinal 11.3 0.7 0.5 32.6  
Blue jay 9.9 0.6 0.4 28.5  
χ2 calculated value = 84.5, χ2 critical value = 7.81, df = 3 
SunflowerThistleMilletSuetTotal
Observed Values      
Northern cardinal 185 14 216 
Blue jay 125 15 11 96 247 
Total 310 23 25 105 463 
Expected Values      
Northern cardinal 144.6 10.7 11.7 49.0  
Blue jay 165.4 12.3 13.3 56.0  
Calculated Values      
Northern cardinal 11.3 0.7 0.5 32.6  
Blue jay 9.9 0.6 0.4 28.5  
χ2 calculated value = 84.5, χ2 critical value = 7.81, df = 3 
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