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Table 1.

Selection of common graphs and statistical tests based on independent and dependent variable classifications.a

Independent VariableDependent VariableGraph TypeStatistical Test
Numerical Numerical Scatter Regression or correlation 
Categorical Numerical (means) Bar (mean ± standard error) t-test or ANOVA 
Categorical Categorical (percents or totals) Bar Chi-square test 
Independent VariableDependent VariableGraph TypeStatistical Test
Numerical Numerical Scatter Regression or correlation 
Categorical Numerical (means) Bar (mean ± standard error) t-test or ANOVA 
Categorical Categorical (percents or totals) Bar Chi-square test 

a Summary table modified from an undergraduate ecology handout by F. Singer, Radford University.

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