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Table 3.

Aggregated “negative” and “frustrating” perceptions of DD themes and the applicable democratic skill that aligns with each theme, as reported by students. Significant differences in the proportion of responses that fell into a particular category between the two time points are indicated (* P ≤ 0.05; ** P ≤ 0.001). Students often had responses that fell into more than one theme.

ThemeApplicable Democratic SkillResponses after Course
(Negative)
(n = 446)
Responses One Year Later
(Frustrating)
(n = 95)
DescriptorsExample Quotes
Class Time Use N/A 15% 19% DD was impinging on class time (i.e., less time for lectures/exam prep, took too long, too many DDs). “The in-class deliberative aspect was a waste of time.” (Nonmajors)
“Most frustrating was not being confident with the material that was going to be on the exams and having to go through a DD instead of the class slides.” (Majors) 
Challenges of Group Dynamics** Communication and Collaboration 13% 54% Group members were not prepared, distracted, not engaged, got credit regardless of participating. “The most frustrating aspect is when your group is quiet and there isn't really a discussion or argument about the subject. Sometimes they just want to complete the worksheet for points and be quiet for the discussion parts or group talk.” (Nonmajors)
“Some students tend to do most of the work and others just sit and talk. If the students put more time and interest into the DD, the class and the work would benefit the students more.” (Majors) 
DD Topic* N/A 8% 19% Students did not enjoy the DD topic and/or found the materials not relevant to the course. “Spending the time to read and discuss when they [DDs] weren't that interesting.” (Nonmajors)
“I think some of the topics are not interesting since there are less real-life applications.” (Majors) 
Implementation* N/A 8% 19% Students found the activity either rushed or too long, and/or the worksheet's format was not helpful. “Sometimes it [DD] felt like busy work.” (Nonmajors)
“I feel that the worksheets we filled out did not work out as well in reality, even though it seems like they would work hypothetically.” (Majors) 
ThemeApplicable Democratic SkillResponses after Course
(Negative)
(n = 446)
Responses One Year Later
(Frustrating)
(n = 95)
DescriptorsExample Quotes
Class Time Use N/A 15% 19% DD was impinging on class time (i.e., less time for lectures/exam prep, took too long, too many DDs). “The in-class deliberative aspect was a waste of time.” (Nonmajors)
“Most frustrating was not being confident with the material that was going to be on the exams and having to go through a DD instead of the class slides.” (Majors) 
Challenges of Group Dynamics** Communication and Collaboration 13% 54% Group members were not prepared, distracted, not engaged, got credit regardless of participating. “The most frustrating aspect is when your group is quiet and there isn't really a discussion or argument about the subject. Sometimes they just want to complete the worksheet for points and be quiet for the discussion parts or group talk.” (Nonmajors)
“Some students tend to do most of the work and others just sit and talk. If the students put more time and interest into the DD, the class and the work would benefit the students more.” (Majors) 
DD Topic* N/A 8% 19% Students did not enjoy the DD topic and/or found the materials not relevant to the course. “Spending the time to read and discuss when they [DDs] weren't that interesting.” (Nonmajors)
“I think some of the topics are not interesting since there are less real-life applications.” (Majors) 
Implementation* N/A 8% 19% Students found the activity either rushed or too long, and/or the worksheet's format was not helpful. “Sometimes it [DD] felt like busy work.” (Nonmajors)
“I feel that the worksheets we filled out did not work out as well in reality, even though it seems like they would work hypothetically.” (Majors) 
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