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Table 3.

Descriptive statistics.

QuestionPretest (Mean±SD)Posttest (Mean±SD)Effect Sizea (d)
Q8 0.85 (± 0.82) 1.84 (± 0.99) 1.217 
Q17b 0.24 (± 0.55) 1.60 (± 1.30) 2.478 
Q23b 1.00 (± 1.17) 2.10 (± 1.29) 0.933 
Q24b 1.50 (± 1.44) 2.87 (± 1.25) 0.947 
Q31b 0.68 (± 1.22) 2.89 (± 1.33) 1.813 
QuestionPretest (Mean±SD)Posttest (Mean±SD)Effect Sizea (d)
Q8 0.85 (± 0.82) 1.84 (± 0.99) 1.217 
Q17b 0.24 (± 0.55) 1.60 (± 1.30) 2.478 
Q23b 1.00 (± 1.17) 2.10 (± 1.29) 0.933 
Q24b 1.50 (± 1.44) 2.87 (± 1.25) 0.947 
Q31b 0.68 (± 1.22) 2.89 (± 1.33) 1.813 
a

Effect size represented by Cohen's d (Cohen, 1988), with values >0.8 representing a large effect.

b

Modified items from Linn et al., 2006.

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