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Table 2.

Worksheet side B – Apple Information.

Part I: NOTES on our Apple Varieties
Variety/Cultivar ("cultivated variety")OriginMethod/EventCommon UsesFun Facts
'Golden Delicious' 1890s West Virginia Chance seedling Good all-purpose apple (fresh eating, and cooking) Doesn't store well and bruises easily 
'Granny Smith' 1860s Australia Chance seedling Fresh eating, sauces Discovered in the garden of Granny (Maria) Smith 
'Jonagold' 1960s Geneva, New York Breeding (a cross between 'Jonathan' and 'Golden Delicious') Excellent for pies and fresh eating New York is one of the leading apple-producing states 
'Rome' and 'Red Rome' 'Rome': mid-1800s, Ohio 'Rome': chance seedling 'Red Rome': a sport (accidental mutation) of a bud or branch on a 'Rome' apple tree Outstanding for baking and drying 'Rome' originated near Rome Township in Ohio 
Part II: NOTES on Apple Breeding and Genetics 
1. An apple is a "fruit." What does that mean?
2. Describe how apple trees reproduce "naturally," using pictures or sketches to illustrate the process.
3. Why are many apples produced in the states of Washington and New York, but few in Texas and Florida?
4. Define "selective breeding." Give some examples of "selectively bred" plants and animals.
5. If more apple trees of a particular variety are needed, they are usually propagated "asexually." What does this mean, and what are the most common methods of asexual propagation for apples? WHY are apple trees usually propagated asexually?
6. Roughly how many varieties of apple are there? How many varieties of apple do you see when you go into a grocery store?
7. Define "simply inherited." Of the traits we assessed, which are "simply inherited"?
8. Define "quantitatively inherited." Of the traits we assessed, which are "quantitatively inherited"?
9. How much time does it take to develop a new variety of apple using "traditional breeding" methods?
10. Why is there an ongoing need for new varieties of apple?
11. How many chromosomes are found in an apple cell? A human cell (a somatic cell, NOT a gamete)?
12. What is a "gene"? Roughly how many genes does an apple have? A human?
13. What is meant by the "genome" of the apple? When was the sequencing of the apple genome completed? When was the sequencing of the human genome completed?
14. How are "genetic markers" useful in apple breeding?
15. What additional roles will "genetic engineering" play in future apple-breeding efforts? 
Part I: NOTES on our Apple Varieties
Variety/Cultivar ("cultivated variety")OriginMethod/EventCommon UsesFun Facts
'Golden Delicious' 1890s West Virginia Chance seedling Good all-purpose apple (fresh eating, and cooking) Doesn't store well and bruises easily 
'Granny Smith' 1860s Australia Chance seedling Fresh eating, sauces Discovered in the garden of Granny (Maria) Smith 
'Jonagold' 1960s Geneva, New York Breeding (a cross between 'Jonathan' and 'Golden Delicious') Excellent for pies and fresh eating New York is one of the leading apple-producing states 
'Rome' and 'Red Rome' 'Rome': mid-1800s, Ohio 'Rome': chance seedling 'Red Rome': a sport (accidental mutation) of a bud or branch on a 'Rome' apple tree Outstanding for baking and drying 'Rome' originated near Rome Township in Ohio 
Part II: NOTES on Apple Breeding and Genetics 
1. An apple is a "fruit." What does that mean?
2. Describe how apple trees reproduce "naturally," using pictures or sketches to illustrate the process.
3. Why are many apples produced in the states of Washington and New York, but few in Texas and Florida?
4. Define "selective breeding." Give some examples of "selectively bred" plants and animals.
5. If more apple trees of a particular variety are needed, they are usually propagated "asexually." What does this mean, and what are the most common methods of asexual propagation for apples? WHY are apple trees usually propagated asexually?
6. Roughly how many varieties of apple are there? How many varieties of apple do you see when you go into a grocery store?
7. Define "simply inherited." Of the traits we assessed, which are "simply inherited"?
8. Define "quantitatively inherited." Of the traits we assessed, which are "quantitatively inherited"?
9. How much time does it take to develop a new variety of apple using "traditional breeding" methods?
10. Why is there an ongoing need for new varieties of apple?
11. How many chromosomes are found in an apple cell? A human cell (a somatic cell, NOT a gamete)?
12. What is a "gene"? Roughly how many genes does an apple have? A human?
13. What is meant by the "genome" of the apple? When was the sequencing of the apple genome completed? When was the sequencing of the human genome completed?
14. How are "genetic markers" useful in apple breeding?
15. What additional roles will "genetic engineering" play in future apple-breeding efforts? 
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