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Table 3.
Twenty example options provided to students in a budgeted management plan project. The full list, which includes 86 options organized among six categories (scientific research, regulation, policy enforcement, socioeconomic change, income generation, and intensive manipulation) is available from the author.
Management OptionaCostb
Abundance/migration estimates by mark and recapture, using inexpensive plastic tags 3T 1$ 
Abundance/migration estimates by mark and recapture, using radiotags or satellite tags 1T 3$ 
Analysis of legal harvest data for population modeling 1T 1$ 
Breeding sterile stock (e.g., triploids); protocols are previously known 2T 1$ 
Bulk removal of invasive plant species by mechanical means 2T 3$ 
Chemical and genetic analysis of wildlife products to detect illegal harvest/trade 1T 2$ 
Closure of resource to foreigners/“outsiders” (O) 1T 5P 2$ 
Country-of-origin labeling for imported wildlife or agricultural products (O) 1T 2P 2$ 
Corporate sponsorship (O) Creates 2$, Costs 1P 
Create one moderately sized or two small no-take reserves (O) 2T 4P 3$ 
Different harvest limits for personal vs. commercial, or indigenous vs. non-indigenous, harvest (O) 1T 2P 1$ 
Economic analysis of harvest (can get estimates with or without management scheme) (O) 1T 1P 2$ 
Ecotourism (fishing, scuba, sailing) Creates 2$ 2P 
Education of harvesters (foresters, fishers, hunters) (O) 2T 1P 2$ 
Export/import restrictions on wildlife products (O) 2T 2P 2$ 
Fines and restrictions on urban development 4T 5P 5$ 
Fishing/hunting tournaments Creates 2$ 
Habitat improvement, single local event (e.g., one controlled burn with volunteer labor) 1T 1P 1$ 
Purchase of land; no mineral/development interest (O) 2T 2P 4$ 
Total moratorium on harvest of previously commercial species (O) 4T 9P 5$ 
Management OptionaCostb
Abundance/migration estimates by mark and recapture, using inexpensive plastic tags 3T 1$ 
Abundance/migration estimates by mark and recapture, using radiotags or satellite tags 1T 3$ 
Analysis of legal harvest data for population modeling 1T 1$ 
Breeding sterile stock (e.g., triploids); protocols are previously known 2T 1$ 
Bulk removal of invasive plant species by mechanical means 2T 3$ 
Chemical and genetic analysis of wildlife products to detect illegal harvest/trade 1T 2$ 
Closure of resource to foreigners/“outsiders” (O) 1T 5P 2$ 
Country-of-origin labeling for imported wildlife or agricultural products (O) 1T 2P 2$ 
Corporate sponsorship (O) Creates 2$, Costs 1P 
Create one moderately sized or two small no-take reserves (O) 2T 4P 3$ 
Different harvest limits for personal vs. commercial, or indigenous vs. non-indigenous, harvest (O) 1T 2P 1$ 
Economic analysis of harvest (can get estimates with or without management scheme) (O) 1T 1P 2$ 
Ecotourism (fishing, scuba, sailing) Creates 2$ 2P 
Education of harvesters (foresters, fishers, hunters) (O) 2T 1P 2$ 
Export/import restrictions on wildlife products (O) 2T 2P 2$ 
Fines and restrictions on urban development 4T 5P 5$ 
Fishing/hunting tournaments Creates 2$ 
Habitat improvement, single local event (e.g., one controlled burn with volunteer labor) 1T 1P 1$ 
Purchase of land; no mineral/development interest (O) 2T 2P 4$ 
Total moratorium on harvest of previously commercial species (O) 4T 9P 5$ 
a

O = ostentation penalty, indicating those species whose economic value is inflated due to cultural values, which makes some management procedures more costly; in these cases, an additional one unit of T, $, and P has been added to the cost shown.

b

Budgetary abbreviations: T = units of time; P = units of political support; $ = units of money.

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