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TABLE 1.

Summary for selection of case method

DimensionLCAWFAHybrid approach
Scope of indicators Multiple indicators of impact (e.g., global warming, ecosystem health, and human health) Focused only on freshwater consumption Water withdrawals and hot spots analysis 
Types of water Blue water only (surface and groundwater withdrawalsBlue water, green water, and grey water Blue water withdrawals and green water for crops that are sometimes irrigated 
Scope of the life cycle All significant processes from “cradle to grave” Most studies are “cradle to consumer” All significant processes from “cradle to grave” 
Truncation rules All constituents, typical cut-off rules are 1–5% or less of impacts or by mass/energy Only major constituents by mass Omits only minimal processes or those without water use 
Reporting basis Functional Unit Total impacts of production Total lifetime impacts 
DimensionLCAWFAHybrid approach
Scope of indicators Multiple indicators of impact (e.g., global warming, ecosystem health, and human health) Focused only on freshwater consumption Water withdrawals and hot spots analysis 
Types of water Blue water only (surface and groundwater withdrawalsBlue water, green water, and grey water Blue water withdrawals and green water for crops that are sometimes irrigated 
Scope of the life cycle All significant processes from “cradle to grave” Most studies are “cradle to consumer” All significant processes from “cradle to grave” 
Truncation rules All constituents, typical cut-off rules are 1–5% or less of impacts or by mass/energy Only major constituents by mass Omits only minimal processes or those without water use 
Reporting basis Functional Unit Total impacts of production Total lifetime impacts 
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