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Table 2.
Alignment of Marcus unit activities to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) dimensions (NGSS Lead States, 2013).
NGSS DimensionName & NGSS CodeUnit Activity
Science and Engineering Practices Developing and Using Models
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information 
Students model homeostasis in a dehydrated cell using a de-shelled egg. Students draw models that explain cell transport processes.
Students write a letter to Marcus's family describing his medical diagnosis and the genetics of his disease. In final presentations, students provide an explanation with supporting evidence and recommendations for appropriate care in future athletic activities. 
Disciplinary Core Ideas LS1.A: Structure and Function
  • All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1)

  • Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

  • Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system's internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)


LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
  • Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species' characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet-known function. (HS-LS3-1)


LS3.B: Variation of Traits
  • In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)

 
Student groups research genetic disorders that might predispose student athletes to exertion-based collapses.
Students determine the inheritance patterns associated with select diseases through the cooperative jigsaw activity.
Students observe ultrasound images to understand normal and abnormal cardiac functions.
Students participate in egg osmosis laboratory and research dehydration in human bodies.
Student groups discuss and identify that mutations lead to genetic disorders and variations in populations.
Students prepare pedigrees to represent the familial inheritance patterns of potential genetic disorders in Marcus's family. 
Crosscutting Concept(s) Cause and Effect
  • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

 
Students participate in diagnosing Marcus's underlying genetic disorder that led to his collapse while playing sports. Students use medical data and research to refine their predictions and conclude with a final diagnosis. 
NGSS DimensionName & NGSS CodeUnit Activity
Science and Engineering Practices Developing and Using Models
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information 
Students model homeostasis in a dehydrated cell using a de-shelled egg. Students draw models that explain cell transport processes.
Students write a letter to Marcus's family describing his medical diagnosis and the genetics of his disease. In final presentations, students provide an explanation with supporting evidence and recommendations for appropriate care in future athletic activities. 
Disciplinary Core Ideas LS1.A: Structure and Function
  • All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1)

  • Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

  • Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system's internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)


LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
  • Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species' characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet-known function. (HS-LS3-1)


LS3.B: Variation of Traits
  • In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)

 
Student groups research genetic disorders that might predispose student athletes to exertion-based collapses.
Students determine the inheritance patterns associated with select diseases through the cooperative jigsaw activity.
Students observe ultrasound images to understand normal and abnormal cardiac functions.
Students participate in egg osmosis laboratory and research dehydration in human bodies.
Student groups discuss and identify that mutations lead to genetic disorders and variations in populations.
Students prepare pedigrees to represent the familial inheritance patterns of potential genetic disorders in Marcus's family. 
Crosscutting Concept(s) Cause and Effect
  • Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

 
Students participate in diagnosing Marcus's underlying genetic disorder that led to his collapse while playing sports. Students use medical data and research to refine their predictions and conclude with a final diagnosis. 
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