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Table 2.
Suggestions for how to structure this project, based on the key features of project-based learning identified by Krajcik and Shin (2016, p. 276).
Key FeatureHow This Could Be Addressed in the Classroom
Start with a driving question, a problem to be solved. I suggest that students work in a cooperative learning fashion, in small groups (see De Beer & Petersen, 2017b). Each group should formulate a driving question or hypothesis for the investigation, for example:
  • Is there any scientific evidence that supports the Maranao custom of exposing seeds to music to enhance germination?

  • How do different music genres influence seed germination?

  • Are all seeds (of different plant species) equally sensitive to music?

  • What are the influences of different sound volumes and times of exposure to music on seed germination?

  • If you broaden the scope of the project to include humans, a driving question could be “What are the biological, psychological, and social effects of music on people?”

 
Focus on the key standards and outcomes that should be achieved. Students should engage with key standards. In this scientific inquiry, students will learn more about the cell; biological evolution; matter, energy, and organization in living systems; and behavior of organisms. 
Students should explore the driving question by participating in scientific processes. Students will, when planning their investigations, identify all dependent and independent variables. Based on their driving question, they might focus on how different plant species respond to music or, alternatively, how bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris) germinate when exposed to different genres of music. 
There should be engagement in collaborative activities to find solutions to the driving question. Students should also engage with other groups (who might have different experimental designs) and, in the beginning stage of the project, critique the experimental designs of other groups. 
Student learning is scaffolded with learning technologies. Encourage students to engage with literature available on the Internet on the influence of sound waves on cell structure. 
Students create an investigable project that addresses the driving question. Various options exist. You could arrange a class seminar, where all groups present their findings. Alternatively, students can make posters for a class poster display. Students could also be asked to write up their projects in the form of research papers. 
Key FeatureHow This Could Be Addressed in the Classroom
Start with a driving question, a problem to be solved. I suggest that students work in a cooperative learning fashion, in small groups (see De Beer & Petersen, 2017b). Each group should formulate a driving question or hypothesis for the investigation, for example:
  • Is there any scientific evidence that supports the Maranao custom of exposing seeds to music to enhance germination?

  • How do different music genres influence seed germination?

  • Are all seeds (of different plant species) equally sensitive to music?

  • What are the influences of different sound volumes and times of exposure to music on seed germination?

  • If you broaden the scope of the project to include humans, a driving question could be “What are the biological, psychological, and social effects of music on people?”

 
Focus on the key standards and outcomes that should be achieved. Students should engage with key standards. In this scientific inquiry, students will learn more about the cell; biological evolution; matter, energy, and organization in living systems; and behavior of organisms. 
Students should explore the driving question by participating in scientific processes. Students will, when planning their investigations, identify all dependent and independent variables. Based on their driving question, they might focus on how different plant species respond to music or, alternatively, how bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris) germinate when exposed to different genres of music. 
There should be engagement in collaborative activities to find solutions to the driving question. Students should also engage with other groups (who might have different experimental designs) and, in the beginning stage of the project, critique the experimental designs of other groups. 
Student learning is scaffolded with learning technologies. Encourage students to engage with literature available on the Internet on the influence of sound waves on cell structure. 
Students create an investigable project that addresses the driving question. Various options exist. You could arrange a class seminar, where all groups present their findings. Alternatively, students can make posters for a class poster display. Students could also be asked to write up their projects in the form of research papers. 
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