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Table 1.

Instrumental setup

InstrumentModel, ManufacturerMeasured QuantityUncertaintyInferred QuantityUncertainty
Extended meteorological package, EP 
 Radiosonde DFM-17, GRAW (Nürnberg, DE) Temperature, T 0.2 K   
Relative humidity, RH 3%–5%   
 Pitot-static tube  Wind speed, WS 0.5 m s–1   
 3-Axis compass HMC6343, Honeywell (Plymouth, MN, USA) Wind direction, WD 5°   
Ultrasonic anemometer package, UP 
 Ultrasonic anemometer uSonic-3 Class A, Metek (Elmshorn, DE) 3-D wind vector 7.5 cm s–1 Local energy dissipation rate, ε 15% 
1.5° 
Broadband radiation package, BP 
 Pyrgeometer (2x) CGR4, Kipp & Zonen (Delft, NL) Downward TIR irradiance 5 Wm–2 Net TIR irradiance, Fnet 7 Wm–2 
Upward TIR irradiance 5 Wm–2 TIR heating rate, ζ 12 K day–1 
 Pyranometer (2x) CMP3, Kipp & Zonen Downward solar irradiance 2%   
Upward solar irradiance 2% (below cloud),   
5% (above cloud)   
Cubic Aerosol Measurement Platform, CAMP 
 Condensation particle counter CPC 3007 (modified), TSI (Shoreview, MN, USA) Particle number concentration, N12 nm 5% Particle number concentration, N12−150 nm 10% 
 Condensation particle counter CPC 3007 (modified), TSI Particle number concentration, N>150 nm 5%   
 Optical particle size spectrometer POPS, Handix (Fort Collins, CO, USA) Particle number size distribution, DP = 0.15–2.9 μm 5%   
Video Ice Particle Sampler, VIPS 
 Video microscope  Liquid water and/or ice 10 m Cloud flag 10 m 
Cloudnet 
 Microwave radiometer Hatpro, RPG (Meckenheim, DE)   Liquid water path, LWP 20 g m−2 
 + Cloud radar KAZR, ProSensing (Amherst, MA, USA)   Ice water path, IWP 40% 
    Ice water content, IWC −30% to +40% 
 + Lidar PollyXT, TROPOS (Leipzig, Germany)   Liquid water content, LWC 15%–25% 
InstrumentModel, ManufacturerMeasured QuantityUncertaintyInferred QuantityUncertainty
Extended meteorological package, EP 
 Radiosonde DFM-17, GRAW (Nürnberg, DE) Temperature, T 0.2 K   
Relative humidity, RH 3%–5%   
 Pitot-static tube  Wind speed, WS 0.5 m s–1   
 3-Axis compass HMC6343, Honeywell (Plymouth, MN, USA) Wind direction, WD 5°   
Ultrasonic anemometer package, UP 
 Ultrasonic anemometer uSonic-3 Class A, Metek (Elmshorn, DE) 3-D wind vector 7.5 cm s–1 Local energy dissipation rate, ε 15% 
1.5° 
Broadband radiation package, BP 
 Pyrgeometer (2x) CGR4, Kipp & Zonen (Delft, NL) Downward TIR irradiance 5 Wm–2 Net TIR irradiance, Fnet 7 Wm–2 
Upward TIR irradiance 5 Wm–2 TIR heating rate, ζ 12 K day–1 
 Pyranometer (2x) CMP3, Kipp & Zonen Downward solar irradiance 2%   
Upward solar irradiance 2% (below cloud),   
5% (above cloud)   
Cubic Aerosol Measurement Platform, CAMP 
 Condensation particle counter CPC 3007 (modified), TSI (Shoreview, MN, USA) Particle number concentration, N12 nm 5% Particle number concentration, N12−150 nm 10% 
 Condensation particle counter CPC 3007 (modified), TSI Particle number concentration, N>150 nm 5%   
 Optical particle size spectrometer POPS, Handix (Fort Collins, CO, USA) Particle number size distribution, DP = 0.15–2.9 μm 5%   
Video Ice Particle Sampler, VIPS 
 Video microscope  Liquid water and/or ice 10 m Cloud flag 10 m 
Cloudnet 
 Microwave radiometer Hatpro, RPG (Meckenheim, DE)   Liquid water path, LWP 20 g m−2 
 + Cloud radar KAZR, ProSensing (Amherst, MA, USA)   Ice water path, IWP 40% 
    Ice water content, IWC −30% to +40% 
 + Lidar PollyXT, TROPOS (Leipzig, Germany)   Liquid water content, LWC 15%–25% 

TIR = thermal-infrared radiation.

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