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Table 1.

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions and mole fraction measurements in South America. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2021.00050.t1

RegionEmission or Ambient Mole FractionReference
Tropical South America Isoprene (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment):
Annual mean: 15.1 (range = 8.2–23.0) Tg C yr–1
Isoprene (Model of Gases and Aerosols from Nature):
Annual mean: 23.7 (range = 15.7–38.8) Tg C yr–1 
Barkley et al. (2008)  
Tropical South America Isoprene: 144 Tg C yr–1 Sindelarova et al. (2014) 
Amazon Isoprene: 2–10 ppb (dry season) and 1–6 ppb (wet season)
Emission rate: up to 4 mg m–2 h–1 (wet season) and up to 11 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) 
Wei et al. (2018)  
Argentina (Northeastern Eucalyptus forest) Isoprene: Daytime maximum 7.9 mg m–2 h–1 Richter et al. (2016)  
Argentina (Patagonia) Monoterpenes: 1.3 ± 0.15 to 3.9 ± 0.64 mg m–2 h–1 (summer) Centritto et al. (2008)  
Brazil (Central Amazon near Manaus) Isoprene: Mean of 12.1 ± 4 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Karl et al. (2007)  
Brazil (Rondonia) Isoprene: 2.2–6.7 ppb (wet season) 9.8 mg m–2 h–1 Greenberg et al. (2004)  
Brazil (Central Amazon) Isoprene: mean of 1.37 ± 0.7 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Alves et al. (2016)  
Brazil (Central Amazon) Monoterpenes: Mean of 0.96 ± 0.27 ppb (dry season) Yanez-Serrano et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Central Amazon—GoAmazon) Total sesquiterpenes + diterpenes: Mean of 41.8 ng m–3 (wet season) and 38.8 ng m–3 (dry season) Yee et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Central Amazon—GoAmazon) Isoprene: Mean of 0.82 ppb (wet season) and 2.37 ppb (dry season) Shilling et al. (2018)  
Brazil (São Paulo) Isoprene: Mean of 0.08 ppb (summer) and 0.06 ppb (winter) Alvim et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro during 2014 soccer World Cup) Isoprene: 0.14–0.84 ppb (winter) Souza et al. (2016)  
Colombia (urban area—Bogotá) Isoprene: 0.2–4.1 ppb (summer) Franco et al. (2015)  
Ecuador Modeled annual isoprene: 1.1 Tg C yr–1, 0.028–0.086 Tg C month–1 (dry season), 0.092–0.118 Tg C month–1 (wet season)
Modeled annual monoterpenes: 3.8 Tg C yr–1, 0.030–0.034 Tg C month–1 (dry season), 0.028–0.033 Tg C month–1 (wet season) 
Viteri et al. (2017)  
Peru (Amazon) Isoprene: 3.0–8.2 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Helmig et al. (1998)  
RegionEmission or Ambient Mole FractionReference
Tropical South America Isoprene (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment):
Annual mean: 15.1 (range = 8.2–23.0) Tg C yr–1
Isoprene (Model of Gases and Aerosols from Nature):
Annual mean: 23.7 (range = 15.7–38.8) Tg C yr–1 
Barkley et al. (2008)  
Tropical South America Isoprene: 144 Tg C yr–1 Sindelarova et al. (2014) 
Amazon Isoprene: 2–10 ppb (dry season) and 1–6 ppb (wet season)
Emission rate: up to 4 mg m–2 h–1 (wet season) and up to 11 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) 
Wei et al. (2018)  
Argentina (Northeastern Eucalyptus forest) Isoprene: Daytime maximum 7.9 mg m–2 h–1 Richter et al. (2016)  
Argentina (Patagonia) Monoterpenes: 1.3 ± 0.15 to 3.9 ± 0.64 mg m–2 h–1 (summer) Centritto et al. (2008)  
Brazil (Central Amazon near Manaus) Isoprene: Mean of 12.1 ± 4 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Karl et al. (2007)  
Brazil (Rondonia) Isoprene: 2.2–6.7 ppb (wet season) 9.8 mg m–2 h–1 Greenberg et al. (2004)  
Brazil (Central Amazon) Isoprene: mean of 1.37 ± 0.7 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Alves et al. (2016)  
Brazil (Central Amazon) Monoterpenes: Mean of 0.96 ± 0.27 ppb (dry season) Yanez-Serrano et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Central Amazon—GoAmazon) Total sesquiterpenes + diterpenes: Mean of 41.8 ng m–3 (wet season) and 38.8 ng m–3 (dry season) Yee et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Central Amazon—GoAmazon) Isoprene: Mean of 0.82 ppb (wet season) and 2.37 ppb (dry season) Shilling et al. (2018)  
Brazil (São Paulo) Isoprene: Mean of 0.08 ppb (summer) and 0.06 ppb (winter) Alvim et al. (2018)  
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro during 2014 soccer World Cup) Isoprene: 0.14–0.84 ppb (winter) Souza et al. (2016)  
Colombia (urban area—Bogotá) Isoprene: 0.2–4.1 ppb (summer) Franco et al. (2015)  
Ecuador Modeled annual isoprene: 1.1 Tg C yr–1, 0.028–0.086 Tg C month–1 (dry season), 0.092–0.118 Tg C month–1 (wet season)
Modeled annual monoterpenes: 3.8 Tg C yr–1, 0.030–0.034 Tg C month–1 (dry season), 0.028–0.033 Tg C month–1 (wet season) 
Viteri et al. (2017)  
Peru (Amazon) Isoprene: 3.0–8.2 mg m–2 h–1 (dry season) Helmig et al. (1998)  

Note that the term “ppb” refers to the mole fraction nmol/mol.

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