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Table 2. Results of Bayesian mixed-effect models for all dependent variables calculated from trial onset
  Estimate Est.error 95% Cr. I Effective samples 
  lower upper 
Accuracy 
Population-level effects Intercept 2.27 0.177 1.936 2.636 3803 
Name Agreement -0.309 0.186 -0.677 0.052 10504 
Semantic Context -0.379 0.188 -0.753 -0.015 9697 
NA × SC 0.238 0.375 -0.5 0.972 9925 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.853 0.147 0.604 1.173 4228 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.34 0.144 0.042 0.619 2278 
Log-transformed utterance duration 
Population-level effects Intercept 9.242 0.033 9.176 9.305 1593 
Name Agreement -0.055 0.018 -0.091 -0.019 4057 
Semantic Context 0.024 0.018 -0.012 0.059 3865 
NA × SC 0.008 0.036 -0.063 0.078 3891 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.189 0.023 0.151 0.242 2526 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.06 0.007 0.047 0.075 4494 
Log-transformed total pause time 
Population-level effects Intercept 7.633 0.101 7.435 7.839 552 
Name Agreement -0.254 0.057 -0.366 -0.143 2703 
Semantic Context 0.108 0.057 -0.005 0.22 2581 
NA × SC 0.06 0.112 -0.162 0.282 2970 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.592 0.072 0.466 0.749 1382 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.176 0.024 0.135 0.227 3224 
Total chunk number 
Population-level effects Intercept 1.62 0.075 1.475 1.769 654 
Name Agreement -0.139 0.038 -0.214 -0.063 3889 
Semantic Context 0.045 0.038 -0.031 0.12 3597 
NA × SC 0.016 0.078 -0.135 0.174 3461 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.439 0.054 0.347 0.558 1331 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.109 0.018 0.077 0.147 3944 
First chunk length 
Population-level effects Intercept 1.436 0.092 1.251 1.617 690 
Name Agreement 0.172 0.057 0.059 0.282 2749 
Semantic Context -0.009 0.058 -0.122 0.102 2601 
NA × SC 0.052 0.115 -0.174 0.284 2730 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.533 0.067 0.418 0.682 1285 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.182 0.024 0.14 0.234 3412 
Log-transformed onset latency 
Population-level effects Intercept 7.198 0.028 7.141 7.253 1130 
Name Agreement -0.055 0.013 -0.079 -0.03 10977 
Semantic Context 0.025 0.013 -0.001 0.05 11029 
NA × SC 0.011 0.025 -0.038 0.06 11221 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.167 0.021 0.131 0.213 2336 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.021 0.01 0.002 0.039 2835 
  Estimate Est.error 95% Cr. I Effective samples 
  lower upper 
Accuracy 
Population-level effects Intercept 2.27 0.177 1.936 2.636 3803 
Name Agreement -0.309 0.186 -0.677 0.052 10504 
Semantic Context -0.379 0.188 -0.753 -0.015 9697 
NA × SC 0.238 0.375 -0.5 0.972 9925 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.853 0.147 0.604 1.173 4228 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.34 0.144 0.042 0.619 2278 
Log-transformed utterance duration 
Population-level effects Intercept 9.242 0.033 9.176 9.305 1593 
Name Agreement -0.055 0.018 -0.091 -0.019 4057 
Semantic Context 0.024 0.018 -0.012 0.059 3865 
NA × SC 0.008 0.036 -0.063 0.078 3891 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.189 0.023 0.151 0.242 2526 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.06 0.007 0.047 0.075 4494 
Log-transformed total pause time 
Population-level effects Intercept 7.633 0.101 7.435 7.839 552 
Name Agreement -0.254 0.057 -0.366 -0.143 2703 
Semantic Context 0.108 0.057 -0.005 0.22 2581 
NA × SC 0.06 0.112 -0.162 0.282 2970 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.592 0.072 0.466 0.749 1382 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.176 0.024 0.135 0.227 3224 
Total chunk number 
Population-level effects Intercept 1.62 0.075 1.475 1.769 654 
Name Agreement -0.139 0.038 -0.214 -0.063 3889 
Semantic Context 0.045 0.038 -0.031 0.12 3597 
NA × SC 0.016 0.078 -0.135 0.174 3461 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.439 0.054 0.347 0.558 1331 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.109 0.018 0.077 0.147 3944 
First chunk length 
Population-level effects Intercept 1.436 0.092 1.251 1.617 690 
Name Agreement 0.172 0.057 0.059 0.282 2749 
Semantic Context -0.009 0.058 -0.122 0.102 2601 
NA × SC 0.052 0.115 -0.174 0.284 2730 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.533 0.067 0.418 0.682 1285 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.182 0.024 0.14 0.234 3412 
Log-transformed onset latency 
Population-level effects Intercept 7.198 0.028 7.141 7.253 1130 
Name Agreement -0.055 0.013 -0.079 -0.03 10977 
Semantic Context 0.025 0.013 -0.001 0.05 11029 
NA × SC 0.011 0.025 -0.038 0.06 11221 
Group-level effects Participant_sd(Intercept) 0.167 0.021 0.131 0.213 2336 
Item_sd(Intercept) 0.021 0.01 0.002 0.039 2835 

Note. Models for log-transformed total pause time and total chunk number were run for 5000 iterations, model for log-transformed utterance duration was run for 7000 iterations, and models for other dependent variables were run for 4000 iterations. Bolded values indicate effects where the 95% Cr.I does not contain zero; Italicized values indicate effects where the beta estimate is twice the estimate of the standard error. NA refers to name agreement, SC refers to semantic context.

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