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Table 1.

Sea-ice ecosystem service categorization into provisioning, regulating,a habitat/supporting and cultural services.b DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2021.00007.t1

Ecosystem ServiceCategoryDescriptionc
Habitat/supporting Life cycle maintenance Essential habitat for sea-ice algae, habitat for bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses (4.2.2), and ice fauna (4.2.3) 
  Complete life cycle support for Arctic and Antarctic crustaceans and sympagic meiofauna (4.2.3) 
  Habitat for critical life stages for some pelagic and benthic metazoan species (4.2.3) 
  Ice algal carbon constitutes a key baseline item in polar food webs (4.3.1, 4.3.2); also regulating service, biological control. 
  Key role for reproduction/survival/recruitment of juvenile stages of forage species (ice amphipods, copepods, Arctic cod, Antarctic krill; 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.3.2) 
  Habitat for marine mammal and seabird species endemic to the sea-ice environment. (Sea ice is critical or important for one or more life stages; 4.3.3) 
  Pack-ice zone and ice edge provide habitats for marine mammals and penguins in different periods of their annual life cycles (4.3.3). 
  Ice edge/polynyas are important foraging grounds (4.3.3). 
  Platform for a range of ice-based activities (7.1, 7.2) 
 Gene pool protection Genetic information of endemic and cryo-adapted sea-ice species (4.2) 
  Multiyear ice provides key support for sea-ice algal biodiversity (9.1.1). 
  Central Arctic under-ice habitat potential vector of genetic exchange and recruitment source for coastal Arctic cod populations (4.3.2) 
  Sea-ice barrier supports genetic distinction in species (4.3.3). 
Provisioning Seafood Key subsistence species for Arctic residents, especially Inuit, depend on sea ice and sea-ice algae (4.3.2, 4.3.3, 5.1.1). 
  Limited commercial fisheries include sea-ice–associated species (Antarctic krill, Arctic cod) (5.1). 
 Medicinal and genetic resources Use of sea-ice algal and bacterial communities for potential pharmaceuticals, and health products (bioprospecting, 5.2) 
  Pharmaceutical/aquaculture use are likely factors driving future growth in krill fishing industry (5.2). 
 Ornamental resources and raw materials Sea-ice–associated species provide raw materials for the production of clothing and art (5.1.1, 7.1). 
Regulatinga Air purification Near-surface atmospheric cleansing via chemical interactions of halogens and sea ice (6.4) 
 Climate regulation Sea-ice and its biotic and abiotic contents regulate the surface albedo and radiative transfer, regulating light for pelagic primary production (6.1). 
  Sea-ice carbon pump contributes to deep ocean carbon export (6.3). 
  Ice-algal-produced DMSP supports the release of the climate active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS; 6.4). 
  Supply of organic carbon and nutrients, including iron, to the ocean (6.5) 
 Biological control Released sea-ice algal carbon is either mineralized in the upper water column or exported to the deep ocean (6.2). 
  Sea-ice bacteria fulfill and mediate essential biogeochemical functions (decomposition of particulate organic matter, remineralization of nutrients; 4.2.2). 
  Sea ice influences food web structure, energy flows among polar ecosystems, and indirectly population dynamics and ecosystem resilience (4.3.1, 4.3.2). 
Cultural Cultural heritage and identity Sea ice is linked to culture and identity of Arctic coastal communities and provides a key transportation platform (7.1). 
  Sea-ice–associated country foods are key components of culture and tradition for Arctic Indigenous Peoples with high spiritual, cultural, traditional and social values (7.1). 
 Spiritual experience Sea ice, sea-ice ecosystems, and sea-ice species contribute to spiritual experiences of Arctic coastal communities and visitors (7.1, 7.3). 
 Inspiration for culture, art and design Pristine landscapes, charismatic wildlife, and sea birds inspire Arctic residents, photographers, movie makers, writers, artists, and naturalists (7.2, 7.3). 
 Recreation and leisure Platform for recreational activities (walks, skidooing, fishing) of Arctic residents (7.1) 
  Many marine-based recreational activities are linked to biological hotspots in the vicinity of sea ice (e.g., tourism in the Antarctic Peninsula area). Reduced sea-ice cover furthers the expansion of tourism operators into new regions (7.3). 
 Aesthetic information Inspiration of aesthetic power (7.2) including through habitat services for charismatic wildlife and sea birds (4.3.3) 
 Information for cognitive development Inspiration and support of Indigenous and local knowledge systems (7.1) 
  Inspiration for scientific research and exploration, natural/remote/pristine laboratory (7.2) 
  Unique proxy for extraterrestrial life (7.2) 
Ecosystem ServiceCategoryDescriptionc
Habitat/supporting Life cycle maintenance Essential habitat for sea-ice algae, habitat for bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses (4.2.2), and ice fauna (4.2.3) 
  Complete life cycle support for Arctic and Antarctic crustaceans and sympagic meiofauna (4.2.3) 
  Habitat for critical life stages for some pelagic and benthic metazoan species (4.2.3) 
  Ice algal carbon constitutes a key baseline item in polar food webs (4.3.1, 4.3.2); also regulating service, biological control. 
  Key role for reproduction/survival/recruitment of juvenile stages of forage species (ice amphipods, copepods, Arctic cod, Antarctic krill; 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.3.2) 
  Habitat for marine mammal and seabird species endemic to the sea-ice environment. (Sea ice is critical or important for one or more life stages; 4.3.3) 
  Pack-ice zone and ice edge provide habitats for marine mammals and penguins in different periods of their annual life cycles (4.3.3). 
  Ice edge/polynyas are important foraging grounds (4.3.3). 
  Platform for a range of ice-based activities (7.1, 7.2) 
 Gene pool protection Genetic information of endemic and cryo-adapted sea-ice species (4.2) 
  Multiyear ice provides key support for sea-ice algal biodiversity (9.1.1). 
  Central Arctic under-ice habitat potential vector of genetic exchange and recruitment source for coastal Arctic cod populations (4.3.2) 
  Sea-ice barrier supports genetic distinction in species (4.3.3). 
Provisioning Seafood Key subsistence species for Arctic residents, especially Inuit, depend on sea ice and sea-ice algae (4.3.2, 4.3.3, 5.1.1). 
  Limited commercial fisheries include sea-ice–associated species (Antarctic krill, Arctic cod) (5.1). 
 Medicinal and genetic resources Use of sea-ice algal and bacterial communities for potential pharmaceuticals, and health products (bioprospecting, 5.2) 
  Pharmaceutical/aquaculture use are likely factors driving future growth in krill fishing industry (5.2). 
 Ornamental resources and raw materials Sea-ice–associated species provide raw materials for the production of clothing and art (5.1.1, 7.1). 
Regulatinga Air purification Near-surface atmospheric cleansing via chemical interactions of halogens and sea ice (6.4) 
 Climate regulation Sea-ice and its biotic and abiotic contents regulate the surface albedo and radiative transfer, regulating light for pelagic primary production (6.1). 
  Sea-ice carbon pump contributes to deep ocean carbon export (6.3). 
  Ice-algal-produced DMSP supports the release of the climate active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS; 6.4). 
  Supply of organic carbon and nutrients, including iron, to the ocean (6.5) 
 Biological control Released sea-ice algal carbon is either mineralized in the upper water column or exported to the deep ocean (6.2). 
  Sea-ice bacteria fulfill and mediate essential biogeochemical functions (decomposition of particulate organic matter, remineralization of nutrients; 4.2.2). 
  Sea ice influences food web structure, energy flows among polar ecosystems, and indirectly population dynamics and ecosystem resilience (4.3.1, 4.3.2). 
Cultural Cultural heritage and identity Sea ice is linked to culture and identity of Arctic coastal communities and provides a key transportation platform (7.1). 
  Sea-ice–associated country foods are key components of culture and tradition for Arctic Indigenous Peoples with high spiritual, cultural, traditional and social values (7.1). 
 Spiritual experience Sea ice, sea-ice ecosystems, and sea-ice species contribute to spiritual experiences of Arctic coastal communities and visitors (7.1, 7.3). 
 Inspiration for culture, art and design Pristine landscapes, charismatic wildlife, and sea birds inspire Arctic residents, photographers, movie makers, writers, artists, and naturalists (7.2, 7.3). 
 Recreation and leisure Platform for recreational activities (walks, skidooing, fishing) of Arctic residents (7.1) 
  Many marine-based recreational activities are linked to biological hotspots in the vicinity of sea ice (e.g., tourism in the Antarctic Peninsula area). Reduced sea-ice cover furthers the expansion of tourism operators into new regions (7.3). 
 Aesthetic information Inspiration of aesthetic power (7.2) including through habitat services for charismatic wildlife and sea birds (4.3.3) 
 Information for cognitive development Inspiration and support of Indigenous and local knowledge systems (7.1) 
  Inspiration for scientific research and exploration, natural/remote/pristine laboratory (7.2) 
  Unique proxy for extraterrestrial life (7.2) 

a Abiotic chemical transport processes impacted by sea ice are included into regulating ES; however, purely physical sea-ice system services (e.g., wave dampening, coastal erosion prevention, albedo effects, see Eicken et al., 2009) are not considered here.

b Following TEEB (2010) and Böhnke-Henrichs et al. (2013).

c Sections are referenced in parentheses.

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