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Table 2.

Mean biomass, primary production, secondary production, and carbon demand for under-ice biota at the 8 ice stations, including standard deviation (SD, n = 8), range, and relative (Rel.) share. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.2020.00169.t2

BiomassPrimary or Secondary ProductionCarbon Demand
Under-Ice BiotaMean (µg C m–2)SDRangeRel. (%)Mean (µg C m–2 day–1)SDRangeRel. (%)Mean (µg C m–2 day–1)SDRangeRel. (%)
Primary producers 
 Phytoplankton (0–2 m) 352,000 423,000 28,600–1,120,000 naa 30,400 43,500 1,180–114,000 na na na na na 
 Ice algae 17,700 9,790 6,300–28,500 na 16,900 13,900 3,720–34,500 na na na na na 
Secondary producers (under-ice fauna) 
Tisbe Lilljeborg, 1853 spp. <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
Oithona Baird, 1843 sp. <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.0 0.0 0–0.0 <0.1 
Calanus hyperboreus Krøyer, 1838 4,390 5,070 5.1–15,800 19.8 52.6 60.8 0.1–189 19.8 560 (140)b 634 1.3–1,990 10.0 
Calanus glacialis Jaschnov, 1955 3,120 2,210 127–5,960 14.0 37.4 26.5 1.5–71.5 14.0 448 (148)b 299 15.7–758 8.0 
Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1765) 4,540 3,770 492–12,420 20.5 54.5 45.2 5.9–149 20.5 734 (242)b 728 59.9–2,380 13.2 
 Nauplii (Copepoda) 575 1,510 0–4,310 2.6 6.9 18.1 0–51.8 2.6 144 378 0–1,080 2.6 
Paraeuchaeta Scott, 1909 spp. 5.6 15.7 0–44.5 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.5 <0.1 1.1 3.1 0–8.9 <0.1 
Metridia longa (Lubbock, 1854) 15.9 44.9 0–127 0.1 0.2 0.5 0–1.5 0.1 3.2 9.0 0–25.4 0.1 
Clausocalanidae Giesbrecht, 1893 8.7 18.1 0–52.8 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 0.0 1.7 3.6 0–10.6 <0.1 
Themisto Guerin, 1825 spp. 39.2 110.9 0–313.6 0.2 0.5 1.3 0–3.8 0.2 1.0 2.8 0–7.8 <0.1 
Themisto libellula (Lichtenstein in Mandt, 1822) 2.6 4.0 0–10.8 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 
Apherusa glacialis (Hansen, 1888) 2,480 2,460 77.4–6,580 11.2 29.7 29.5 0.9–78.9 11.2 62.0 (53.3)b 61.5 1.9–164 1.1 
Onisimus glacialis (G. O. Sars, 1900) 2.9 8.2 0–23.3 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 <0.1 
Thysanoessa longicaudata Krøyer, 1846 38.6 94.1 0–270 0.2 0.5 1.1 0–3.2 0.2 7.7 18.8 0–53.8 0.1 
 Isopoda Latreille, 1817 1.6 4.1 0–11.6 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 0.0 0.3 0.8 0–2.3 <0.1 
 Zoaea larvae <0.1 0.1 0–0.4 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 
 Cirripedia Burmeister, 1834 17.4 20.2 0.1–59.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 0–0.7 0.1 3.5 4.0 0–11.9 0.1 
 Chaetognatha not documented 459 1,300 0–3,670 2.1 5.5 15.6 0–44.1 2.1 78.1 221 0–625 1.4 
Eukrohnia hamata (Moebius, 1875) 1,270 1,490 0–3,640 5.7 15.3 17.8 0–43.6 5.7 217 253 0–618 3.9 
Parasagitta elegans (Verrill,1873) 64.8 107 0–319 0.3 0.8 1.3 0–3.8 0.3 11.0 18.2 0–54.3 0.2 
 Appendicularia Fol, 1874 5,150 14,600 0–41,200 23.2 61.8 175 0–494 23.2 3,300 (725)b 9,320 0–26,400 59.2 
 Osteichthyes larvae 0.4 1.2 0–3.3 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.7 <0.1 
Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774) 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 
Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774) 10.9 30.9 0–87.3 <0.1 0.1 0.4 0–1.1 0.0 2.2 6.2 0–17.4 <0.1 
 Polychaeta Grube, 1850 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
 Trochophora larvae 3.11 7.41 0–21.3 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 0.6 1.5 0–4.3 <0.1 
 Hydrozoa Owen, 1843 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
 Xenacoelomorpha Philippe, Brinkmann, Copley, Moroz, Nakano, Poustka, Wallberg, Peterson & Telford, 2011 0.36 0.64 0–1.7 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 
Total 22,200 19,400 3,180–62,700 100 266 233 38–752 100 5,570 (1,310)b 9,750 170–29,400 100 
BiomassPrimary or Secondary ProductionCarbon Demand
Under-Ice BiotaMean (µg C m–2)SDRangeRel. (%)Mean (µg C m–2 day–1)SDRangeRel. (%)Mean (µg C m–2 day–1)SDRangeRel. (%)
Primary producers 
 Phytoplankton (0–2 m) 352,000 423,000 28,600–1,120,000 naa 30,400 43,500 1,180–114,000 na na na na na 
 Ice algae 17,700 9,790 6,300–28,500 na 16,900 13,900 3,720–34,500 na na na na na 
Secondary producers (under-ice fauna) 
Tisbe Lilljeborg, 1853 spp. <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
Oithona Baird, 1843 sp. <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.0 0.0 0–0.0 <0.1 
Calanus hyperboreus Krøyer, 1838 4,390 5,070 5.1–15,800 19.8 52.6 60.8 0.1–189 19.8 560 (140)b 634 1.3–1,990 10.0 
Calanus glacialis Jaschnov, 1955 3,120 2,210 127–5,960 14.0 37.4 26.5 1.5–71.5 14.0 448 (148)b 299 15.7–758 8.0 
Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus, 1765) 4,540 3,770 492–12,420 20.5 54.5 45.2 5.9–149 20.5 734 (242)b 728 59.9–2,380 13.2 
 Nauplii (Copepoda) 575 1,510 0–4,310 2.6 6.9 18.1 0–51.8 2.6 144 378 0–1,080 2.6 
Paraeuchaeta Scott, 1909 spp. 5.6 15.7 0–44.5 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.5 <0.1 1.1 3.1 0–8.9 <0.1 
Metridia longa (Lubbock, 1854) 15.9 44.9 0–127 0.1 0.2 0.5 0–1.5 0.1 3.2 9.0 0–25.4 0.1 
Clausocalanidae Giesbrecht, 1893 8.7 18.1 0–52.8 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 0.0 1.7 3.6 0–10.6 <0.1 
Themisto Guerin, 1825 spp. 39.2 110.9 0–313.6 0.2 0.5 1.3 0–3.8 0.2 1.0 2.8 0–7.8 <0.1 
Themisto libellula (Lichtenstein in Mandt, 1822) 2.6 4.0 0–10.8 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 
Apherusa glacialis (Hansen, 1888) 2,480 2,460 77.4–6,580 11.2 29.7 29.5 0.9–78.9 11.2 62.0 (53.3)b 61.5 1.9–164 1.1 
Onisimus glacialis (G. O. Sars, 1900) 2.9 8.2 0–23.3 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 <0.1 
Thysanoessa longicaudata Krøyer, 1846 38.6 94.1 0–270 0.2 0.5 1.1 0–3.2 0.2 7.7 18.8 0–53.8 0.1 
 Isopoda Latreille, 1817 1.6 4.1 0–11.6 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 0.0 0.3 0.8 0–2.3 <0.1 
 Zoaea larvae <0.1 0.1 0–0.4 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 
 Cirripedia Burmeister, 1834 17.4 20.2 0.1–59.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 0–0.7 0.1 3.5 4.0 0–11.9 0.1 
 Chaetognatha not documented 459 1,300 0–3,670 2.1 5.5 15.6 0–44.1 2.1 78.1 221 0–625 1.4 
Eukrohnia hamata (Moebius, 1875) 1,270 1,490 0–3,640 5.7 15.3 17.8 0–43.6 5.7 217 253 0–618 3.9 
Parasagitta elegans (Verrill,1873) 64.8 107 0–319 0.3 0.8 1.3 0–3.8 0.3 11.0 18.2 0–54.3 0.2 
 Appendicularia Fol, 1874 5,150 14,600 0–41,200 23.2 61.8 175 0–494 23.2 3,300 (725)b 9,320 0–26,400 59.2 
 Osteichthyes larvae 0.4 1.2 0–3.3 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.1 0.2 0–0.7 <0.1 
Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774) 0.1 0.2 0–0.6 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.1 <0.1 
Clione limacina (Phipps, 1774) 10.9 30.9 0–87.3 <0.1 0.1 0.4 0–1.1 0.0 2.2 6.2 0–17.4 <0.1 
 Polychaeta Grube, 1850 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
 Trochophora larvae 3.11 7.41 0–21.3 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 0.6 1.5 0–4.3 <0.1 
 Hydrozoa Owen, 1843 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 
 Xenacoelomorpha Philippe, Brinkmann, Copley, Moroz, Nakano, Poustka, Wallberg, Peterson & Telford, 2011 0.36 0.64 0–1.7 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0–0.0 <0.1 0.1 0.1 0–0.3 <0.1 
Total 22,200 19,400 3,180–62,700 100 266 233 38–752 100 5,570 (1,310)b 9,750 170–29,400 100 

aNot applicable.

bOf that ice algae.

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