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Table 1.
Bundled ‘threads’ of legitimacya

aAn economic thread of legitimacy also exists. Here, knowledge is made legitimate through meeting economic tests, such as generating monetary revenues or livelihood wealth, or aiding farmers to survive in the market. Economic tests vary according to the economic system in question; this may range from capitalist markets and global trade to peasant markets and use value exchanges. We do not examine economic legitimation in this paper because we focus on non-economic forms of legitimation. Economic legitimation in North America is also very much tied to a dominant market model.

bIn practice, these categories are highly fluid. Many farmers who authenticate ‘practical’ legitimacy, for example, belong to social movements where knowledge is validated in a ‘civic’ context.

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