Table 1

Features of selected public repositories that hold psychological data.

Operator(s)For- profit/Non-profitCountry/jurisdictionFocus/specializationCosts for data sharerSelf-deposit1Private (i.e., non-public) storage/projects possibleRestrictions of access possible (for published/public projects)Embargo period possibleContent types2

Code Ocean Code Ocean Non-profit USA None 50 GB of storage, 10 hrs/month cloud computing time (with up to 5 concurrent runs) free for academic users Yes Only before publication of the project No No Software applications, Source code, Structured graphics, Configuration data
DANS EASY Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NOW) & Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) Non-profit Netherlands None Free for up to 50GB Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured text, Structured graphics, Databases
Dryad Dryad Digital Repository Non-profit USA Medical and life sciences $120 for every data package up to 20GB (+$50 for each additional 10 GB); no costs for data sharers if charges are covered by a journal or the submitter is based in a country that qualifies for a fee waiver Yes No No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text,
Software applications, Source code, Structured text, other
figshare Digital Science For-profit UK None Free for up to 100GB Yes Yes (up to 20GB for free accounts) Yes3 Yes3 Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Archived data, Source code, Structured graphics
GESIS datorium GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences Non-profit Germany Social sciences Free Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Raw data, Structured graphics, other
GESIS standard archiving GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences Non-profit Germany Social sciences, survey data (esp. from large or repeated cross-sectional or longitudinal studies) Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Archived data
Harvard Dataverse Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Sciences Non-profit USA4 None Free Yes Yes Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data, formats, Standard office documents, Raw data, Archived data, Software applications, Source code, Databases
Mendeley Data Elsevier (in cooperation with DANS) For-profit Netherlands None Free5 Yes Yes No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Software applications,
Structured text, Configuration data, other
openICPSR Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Science Non-profit USA Political and social research, social and behavioral sciences Free up to 2GB6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Archived data, Structured text, Structured graphics
Open Science Framework Center for Open Science Non-profit USA None Free Yes Yes No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, other
PsychData ZPID – Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information Non-profit Germany Psychology, data for peer-reviewed publications Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text
UK Data Service standard archiving UK Data Archive & Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Non-profit UK Social research, esp. large-scale surveys, longitudinal, and qualitative studies Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured graphics
UK Data Service ReShare UK Data Archive & Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Non-profit UK Social sciences Free Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data, formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured graphics
Zenodo European Organization for Nuclear Research & Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe (OpenAIRE) Non-profit EU None Free7 Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Archived data, Source code, Structured text, Structured graphics, Networkbased data, other
Operator(s)For- profit/Non-profitCountry/jurisdictionFocus/specializationCosts for data sharerSelf-deposit1Private (i.e., non-public) storage/projects possibleRestrictions of access possible (for published/public projects)Embargo period possibleContent types2

Code Ocean Code Ocean Non-profit USA None 50 GB of storage, 10 hrs/month cloud computing time (with up to 5 concurrent runs) free for academic users Yes Only before publication of the project No No Software applications, Source code, Structured graphics, Configuration data
DANS EASY Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NOW) & Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) Non-profit Netherlands None Free for up to 50GB Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured text, Structured graphics, Databases
Dryad Dryad Digital Repository Non-profit USA Medical and life sciences $120 for every data package up to 20GB (+$50 for each additional 10 GB); no costs for data sharers if charges are covered by a journal or the submitter is based in a country that qualifies for a fee waiver Yes No No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text,
Software applications, Source code, Structured text, other
figshare Digital Science For-profit UK None Free for up to 100GB Yes Yes (up to 20GB for free accounts) Yes3 Yes3 Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Archived data, Source code, Structured graphics
GESIS datorium GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences Non-profit Germany Social sciences Free Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Raw data, Structured graphics, other
GESIS standard archiving GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences Non-profit Germany Social sciences, survey data (esp. from large or repeated cross-sectional or longitudinal studies) Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Archived data
Harvard Dataverse Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Sciences Non-profit USA4 None Free Yes Yes Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data, formats, Standard office documents, Raw data, Archived data, Software applications, Source code, Databases
Mendeley Data Elsevier (in cooperation with DANS) For-profit Netherlands None Free5 Yes Yes No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Software applications,
Structured text, Configuration data, other
openICPSR Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Science Non-profit USA Political and social research, social and behavioral sciences Free up to 2GB6 Yes Yes Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Archived data, Structured text, Structured graphics
Open Science Framework Center for Open Science Non-profit USA None Free Yes Yes No Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, other
PsychData ZPID – Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information Non-profit Germany Psychology, data for peer-reviewed publications Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text
UK Data Service standard archiving UK Data Archive & Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Non-profit UK Social research, esp. large-scale surveys, longitudinal, and qualitative studies Free No No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured graphics
UK Data Service ReShare UK Data Archive & Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Non-profit UK Social sciences Free Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data, formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Structured graphics
Zenodo European Organization for Nuclear Research & Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe (OpenAIRE) Non-profit EU None Free7 Yes No Yes Yes Scientific and statistical data formats, Standard office documents, Plain text, Images, Audiovisual data, Raw data, Archived data, Source code, Structured text, Structured graphics, Networkbased data, other

1 If self-deposit (i.e., researchers can directly upload their own materials) is not possible, this means that the repository is curated (or at least more strongly curated than the others). The advantage of these repositories is that they offer additional help and services by professional archiving staff (e.g., in the creation of study- and variable-level documentation or the conversion of files to nonproprietary formats).

2 We used the content type category from the re3data schema v3.0 here (see Rücknagel et al., 2015).

3 Individual files can be embargoed or made confidential.

4 Dataverse is a special case in several regards. There is the overall Dataverse Project (https://dataverse.org/), then there are different Dataverse repositories (e.g., the Harvard Dataverse: https://dataverse.harvard.edu/ or DataverseNL: https://dataverse.nl/ by the Dutch Data Archiving and Networked Services) which host multiple individual Dataverses (e.g., by individual universities, research groups or researchers). If the institution a researcher is affiliated with does not have its own Dataverse repository or Dataverse, it is possible to create a Dataverse within the Harvard Dataverse repository. For a more detailed description of Dataverse and its organizational architecture, see King (2007) and Leeper (2014).

5 The FAQ on the Mendeley Data website states that they may introduce a freemium model in the future “for instance charging for storing and posting data, above a certain dataset size threshold” (see https://data.mendeley.com/faq).

6 If more storage space or additional services are needed the researchers or their institutions can choose to pay for branded OpenICPSR hosting or the “Professional Curation Package” to access all of the ICPSR (curation) services (see https://www.openicpsr.org/openicpsr/pricing).