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Table 3.

Annual extension of distinct trophic states in the ice-edge zone estimated using Chla thresholds and sea-ice retreat between 1998 and 2018 in the HBS. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.039.t3

Ice-edge Zone Trophic StateExtension in 104 km2 (%a) and Extreme Yearsb
CategoriesChla (mg m–3)MedianMax., yearMin., yearTrendc,dRMSEe
Oligotrophy <0.2 3.7 (4.6%) 18.2 (22.7%), 1999 0.5 (0.6%), 2008 –0.4 (–0.4%) 4.3 
Moderate oligotrophy 0.2–0.5 28.8 (35.9%) 36.4 (45.4%), 2000 13.6 (17.0%), 2015 –0.2 (–0.3%) 4.9 
Bloom 0.5–2.0 33.1 (41.3%) 45.0 (56.2%), 2008 22.3 (27.9%), 1999 +0.4 (+0.5%) 5.6 
Major bloom >2.0 4.0 (5.0%) 7.2 (9.0%), 2015 1.8 (2.3%), 2010 0.0 (0.0%) 1.5 
Sea-ice retreatf 183 194, 2004 174, 2006 +0.1 5.7 
Ice-edge Zone Trophic StateExtension in 104 km2 (%a) and Extreme Yearsb
CategoriesChla (mg m–3)MedianMax., yearMin., yearTrendc,dRMSEe
Oligotrophy <0.2 3.7 (4.6%) 18.2 (22.7%), 1999 0.5 (0.6%), 2008 –0.4 (–0.4%) 4.3 
Moderate oligotrophy 0.2–0.5 28.8 (35.9%) 36.4 (45.4%), 2000 13.6 (17.0%), 2015 –0.2 (–0.3%) 4.9 
Bloom 0.5–2.0 33.1 (41.3%) 45.0 (56.2%), 2008 22.3 (27.9%), 1999 +0.4 (+0.5%) 5.6 
Major bloom >2.0 4.0 (5.0%) 7.2 (9.0%), 2015 1.8 (2.3%), 2010 0.0 (0.0%) 1.5 
Sea-ice retreatf 183 194, 2004 174, 2006 +0.1 5.7 

a% of total area of Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait deeper than 50 m: 80 × 104 km2 (Amante and Eakins, 2009);

bExtreme events are reported according to year of maximum and minimum coverage;

cIn an interval of confidence of 95% (P < 0.05) for the extension of trophic states;

dIn an interval of confidence of 99% (P < 0.01) for the day of sea-ice retreat;

eRoot mean square error;

fFirst day of the year when sea-ice concentration is below 10%.

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